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Designing an Uninterruptible Power Supply

Designing an Uninterruptible Power Supply



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Published by Hans De Keulenaer
In this guide, a design engineer has to advise his industrial customer who plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system. Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations, his methodology is described.
In this guide, a design engineer has to advise his industrial customer who plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system. Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations, his methodology is described.

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Published by: Hans De Keulenaer on Aug 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Guide for electrical design engineers
 Julian Wiatr 
 ow e Q u al   i    t    y
Power Qualit
Example of a process production line
Designing an uninterruptible power supply 
Power Quality 
Scope o design
A company specialized in uninterruptible power supply systems developed and manuactured in 2006 a systemcomprising a 400kVA UPS unit. The system was installed in a production acility manuacturing ood packagingequipment and oil, located in northern Poland. Frequent voltage dips and fuctuations were severely impairing theproduction process, causing downtimes o several-hour duration, which generated substantial losses. Restarting theproduction caused another losses resulting rom the process specicity. Typically about 200 kg o material was lostuntil nal product was compliant with standards. The production plant is supplied directly rom two-transormer substation 15/0.42 kV. The substation is not equippedwith automatic stand-by switching system and is provided only with a manually operated power switch 1—0—2(I
=1250A). According to the design o electrical installation in the production line room, individual loads weresupplied directly rom LV switchboard in the transormer substation; a re cut-o switch was not installed.Since the commissioning o the uninterruptible power supply system the process line has been operating ailureree. Supply interruptions, even o a several minute duration, do not cause the process breakdown. The transormersubstation was provided with re cut-o switch actuated by manually operated switches located at the main entranceto the production room and at the entrance to the UPS room. Actuation o the re switch turns the UPS o and thusturns o all loads installed in the building. Photographs below show some elements o the uninterruptible powersupply installation.
View o the uninterruptible power supply installation
 The design o the uninterruptible power supply system installation involved some problems related with e cientlyventing o hydrogen released during the UPS battery charging. The room intended by the investor or the UPSinstallation was very small what resulted in the necessity or design o ventilation and air conditioning installation.Charging o lead-acid batteries involves hydrogen evolution due to water decomposition (even in a sealed batterythere is no 100% recombination). This process is associated with the water decomposition voltage o ca. 0.23 V. Waterdecomposition process in lead-acid battery is indicated in gure 1.
Designing an uninterruptible power supply 
equilibrium voltage~ 2 V0,23 Vwaterdecompositionvoltage
    h   y    d   r   o   g   e   n    g   a   s   s    i   n   g    h   y    d   r   o   g   e   n    e   v   o    l   u   t    i   o   n   o   x   y   g   e   n    e   v   o    l   u   t    i   o   n
-0,8 -0,6 -0,4 -0,2 0 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 [v]2H
Fig. 1. Water decomposition in a lead-acid battery Fig. 2. The ignition energy o a hydrogen-air mixture vs. the hydrogen concentration Z 
– minimum ignition energy E 
=0,019 mJ,
– lower explosive limit 
– upper explosive limit 
Accumulating hydrogen gas mixes with air orming a mixture that at the concentration greater than 4.1% (lowerexplosive limit — LEL) becomes explosive. When the concentration exceeds the lower explosive limit even a smallenergy, e.g. that o an electrostatic discharge, is su cient to initiate explosion. The foor in the battery room shall beo an antistatic material that enables an electrostatic charge accumulated on human body fow to earth. The foorresistance shall satisy the condition: 50
. Fullling this condition provides or both: a proper workplaceinsulation, according to IEC 60364-4-41 requirements, and su cient fow o static charge to earth. The dependenceo ignition energy o a hydrogen-air mixture on the hydrogen concentration is shown in gure 2.Hydrogen has a lighter density than air and tends to rise upward in air, orming under a ceiling a layer o mixture withconcentration depending on the intensity o battery gassing and the air exchange rate in the battery room. In orderto mitigate explosion hazards the UPS battery room ventilation is necessary. The presented design employs a two-threshold explosive gases detection system. The detection system comprisesa control panel, two detectors and an optical-audible signaling device. I the concentration exceeds 10% o the lowerexplosive limit (LEL) an exhaust an with air exchange rate 6 times per hour is started. I the gassing is more intensive

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