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WIDIATMOKO: MENELAAH MAKNA TUTURAN

WIDIATMOKO: MENELAAH MAKNA TUTURAN

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Bahasa adalah alat komunikasi antarpenutur untuk menyampaikan ide atau informasi. Di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, manusia selalu menggunakan bahasa dalam berinteraksi sosial. Blakemore mengatakan ‘We communicate our knowledge and our ignorance, our anger and our pleasure, our needs and our intentions. Just as communication serves a variety of purposes it assumes a variety of forms. We may communicate by writing a book or making a speech, with a torrent of words or with one, with a grunt or with silence, by waving our arms or by raising our eyebrows. In some cases the means is chosen with great deliberation and care. In others the choice is spontaneous and virtually unconscious’ (1992).
Bahasa adalah alat komunikasi antarpenutur untuk menyampaikan ide atau informasi. Di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, manusia selalu menggunakan bahasa dalam berinteraksi sosial. Blakemore mengatakan ‘We communicate our knowledge and our ignorance, our anger and our pleasure, our needs and our intentions. Just as communication serves a variety of purposes it assumes a variety of forms. We may communicate by writing a book or making a speech, with a torrent of words or with one, with a grunt or with silence, by waving our arms or by raising our eyebrows. In some cases the means is chosen with great deliberation and care. In others the choice is spontaneous and virtually unconscious’ (1992).

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Published by: WIDIATMOKO on Aug 05, 2009
Copyright:Public Domain

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11/28/2012

 
NM@MCAAO NAB@A T]T]\A@
Laoava adacao acat bin}`ebave a`ta|zm`}t}| }`t}b nm`uanzaeba` edm ata} e`gi|nave.De dacan bmoed}za` vmoa|eoa|e# na`}vea vmcac} nm`hh}`aba` laoava dacan lm|e`tm|abve viveac. Lcabmni|m nm`hataba` ‟
Xm finn}`efatm i}| b`ixcmdhm a`d i}|eh`i|a`fm# i}| a`hm| a`d i}| zcmav}|m# i}| `mmdv a`d i}| e`tm`tei`v. K}vt av finn}`efatei`vm|wmv a wa|emtu ig z}|zivmv et avv}nmv a wa|emtu ig gi|nv. Xm nau finn}`efatm lu x|ete`h aliib i| nabe`h a vzmmfo# xeto a ti||m`t ig xi|dv i| xeto i`m# xeto a h|}`t i| xeto vecm`fm# luxawe`h i}| a|nv i| lu |aeve`h i}| muml|ixv. E` vinm favmv tom nma`v ev foivm` xeto h|matdmcelm|atei` a`d fa|m. E` itom|v tom foiefm ev vzi`ta`mi}v a`d we|t}accu }`fi`vfei}v―
/155<%.Laoava ua`h deh}`aba` adacao laoava ua`h lm|tm|ena a|te`ua lmtazaz}`t}t}|a` ata} }ka|a` ua`h devanzaeba` vmfa|a h|anatebac vacao# `an}` ea levadenm`hm|te icmo zm`dm`ha| ata} caxa` lefa|a. @an}` vmlaceb`ua# vmi|a`h zmnlmcaka| laoava ave`h# bo}v}v`ua laoava E`hh|ev# zm`hh}`aa` }`hbaza` bmteba lm|e`tm|abveviveac de navua|abat aba` fm`dm|}`h lm|lmda da|e laoava el}`ua# laoava ua`hdeh}`aba` vmoa|eoa|e. Tm|bada`h# vmi|a`h zmnlmcaka| laoava E`hh|ev aba` nmnat}oeat}|a` tata laoava }`t}b lm|bin}`ebave vmfa|a tedab gi|nac vmbacez}`. Zadaoac#na`abaca avzmb bmgi|naca` ua`h deh}`aba` vmfa|a bmtat# v}cet vmbace delmdaba` a`ta|a laoava ua`h deh}`aba` de dacan gi|}ngi|}n |mvne da` laoava ua`h deh}`aba` dedacan vet}ave tab|mvne. Nmna`h# laoava tedab oa`ua deh}`aba` }`t}b nm`uataba`vml}ao z|iziveve ua`h |mcmwa` vmlahaena`a dmvb|ezve d}`ea`ua# vmzm|te dacan bacenat;
Tom|m ev a v`abm e` tom h|avv.
Zmnlefa|a bacenat tm|vml}t nmnecebe bcaen laoxa ‟ada vmmbi|}ca|― ata} ‟nm`he`hatba` zm`dm`ha| laoxa de va`a ada vmmbi| }ca|.―Laoava k}ha dazat deh}`aba` }`t}b nmnl}at zm|ka`kea` vmzm|te zada bacenat
 z|inevm toat E xecc `it vnibm#
}`t}b nmnzm`ha|}oe te`daba`# vmzm|te zada bacenat
Vtizvnibe`h#
da` }`t}b nm`kace` o}l}`ha` viveac# vmzm|te zada bacenat
E z|i`i}`fm ui} na`a`d xegm.
Dm`ha` bata cae`# laoava leva deh}`aba` tedab oa`ua }`t}b nm`hhanla|ba`v}ava`a oate tmtaze k}ha }`t}b nm`fezta oacoac cae`. Icmo ba|m`a et}# nm`}|}t tmi|ete`dab t}t}|# bin}`ebave l}ba`cao v}at} oac de na`a nabv}d vmvmi|a`h dazatdenm`hm|te nmcae`ba` oac de na`a nabv}d vmvmi|a`h deh}`aba` }`t}b nmcab}ba` km`ev
 
te`dab t}t}| ua`h tmcao debm`ac /Lcabmni|m# 155<%.Dmnebea` z}ca oac`ua# zm`hh}`a laoava ave`h ka|a`h ata} licmo devml}t tedabnm`hmtao}e zm`hh}`aa` }`hbaza` dacan bi`tmbv viveac de na`a laoava et} deh}`aba`.Nevac`ua# }`hbaza`
Omcci# ve|# xom|m a|m ui} hie`h9
adacao tedab ca{en deh}`aba` bmzadazm`}t}| ave`h bmteba denabv}dba` vmlahae vazaa`. Bmtedabnm`hm|tea` zm`hh}`aa`}`hbaza` vmlahae acat zm`uanzae edm ata} hahva` leva devmlalba` icmo lm|lahae oac.Na`abaca nm`haf} zada dmebvev# }`hbaza` tm|vml}t nm|}zaba` dmebvev vzaveac /
vzateacdmeev
% vmlal kaxala` ua`h deoa|azba` leva kade nm`kade vacao dezaoane icmo zm`dm`ha|ata} caxa` lefa|a. Aza ua`h denabv}d icmo zmnlefa|a adacao }`t}b vazaa`# vmda`hba`zm`dm`ha| ata} caxa` lefa|a nm`ha`hhaz }`hbaza` tm|vml}t nm|}zaba` }`hbaza`dmebvev vzaveac ua`h nmnm|c}ba` kaxala` cibave. Vmn}a e`e tm`t} aba` va`hat lm|ha`t}`h zada zmnlefa|a da` zm`dm`ha| dacan e`tm|abve lm|lefa|a vmn}ba /
 gafmti gafm vzibm` e`tm|aftei`
% /U}cm# 1557%.Dmebvev vzaveac nm`mba`ba` ‟
oetom|
― /bm tmnzat e`e% da` ‟
tom`fm
― /da|e tmnzat et}%.Vmi|a`h zmnlefa|a dm`ha` dmebvev vzaveac nanz} nmnz|iumbveba` de|e`ua bm cibavecae` vmlmc}n lm`a|lm`a| lm|ada de tmnzat tm|vml}t /U}cm# 1557%. Na`abaca }`hbaza`tm|vml}t deceoat da|e te`dab t}t}|# ea nm`ha`d}`h teha te`dab; te`dab cib}ve /te`dabdava| t}t}|a` ua`h nm`hoavecba` mbvz|mve ata} }`hbaza` ce`h}evteb lm|nab`a%# te`dabecib}ve /t}t}|a` bin}`ebateg vmlahae t}k}a` zmnlefa|a dacan bin}`ebave%# da` te`dabzm|cib}ve /danzab ua`h dezaoane icmo zm`dm`ha| abelat bin}`ebave% /U}cm# 1557%.Icmo ba|m`a et}# }`hbaza` de atav de}|aeba` vmlahae ecib}ve na`abaca zmnlefa|aom`dab nm`h}`hbazba` ‟vazaa`―# zm|cib}ve na`abaca zm`dm`ha| nm`uenz}cba`}`hbaza` tm|vml}t vmlahae vmv}at} ua`h nmnm|c}ba` kaxala` ‟cibave―# da` cib}vena`abaca }`hbaza` tm|vml}t lm|lm`t}b zm|ta`uaa`.Zmnlmcaka|a` laoava E`hh|ev deoa|}vba` }`t}b nm`hmtao}e avzmbavzmb ua`hnmnzm|tenla`hba` bmzada veaza zmnabae laoava lm|bin}`ebave da` |ahan laoavaaza ua`h vmoa|}v`ua deh}`aba`. Oac e`e tm`t} leva decab}ba` icmo vmteaz i|a`h zmnabae laoava E`hh|ev vmlahae laoava e`tm|`avei`ac de na`a zmnaoana` a`ta|l}daua ua`htm|ba`d}`h de dacan`ua t}|}t lm|zm|a`a` dacan nmnzm`ha|}oe bin}`ebave.Bin}`ebave ua`h tm|kade lm|bmnla`h vme|e`h dm`ha` te`dab t}t}| ua`h t}|}t lm|bmnla`h z}ca. Fcu`m nm`hataba` ‟
 Ni|miwm|# lmfa}vm ig tom e`tm|f}ct}|ac `at}|m ig tomfinn}`efatei`# et ev zivvelcm ti gif}v i` f}ct}|ac wa|eatei` /av xmcc av hm`dm| wa|eatei` a`dwa|eatei` lmtxmm` xi|bzcafm% e` tom e`fedm`fm ig za|tef}ca| vzmmfo aftv a`d tom xau e` xoefo tomua|m zm|gi|nmd
.―Icmo ba|m`a et}# zm|a`a` vmvmi|a`h lm|t}t}| de|ava lmhet} zm`te`h }`t}bnmnzm`ha|}oe zm`dm`ha| aha| vmfa|a tenlac laceb lm|bin}`ebave vmfa|a e`tm|abteg#tm|cmleo de dacan laoava E`hh|ev vmlahae laoava ave`h.
Z|ahnateb dacan Bin}`ebave
Na`abaca deteceb bm lmcaba`h# de va`a tm|kade axac bakea` laoava ua`h bmn}dea`de`anae z|ahnateb# aba` dek}nzae zm`mn}a` ua`h decab}ba` icmo Bat{ lm|vanabaxa`baxa``ua tm`ta`h lahaena`a nm`he`tmh|aveba` nab`a dacan tmi|e ce`h}evteb.N}cae tao}`tao}` e`e bmlm|adaa` vmna`teb dezm|oet}`hba` icmo za|a aoce laoava#
 
bmn}dea` Cabigg da` \ivv /1581% nm`a`davba` laoxa ve`tabvev tedab dazat dezevaoba`da|e bakea` zmnabaea` laoava /Bavxa`te Z}|xi# 155:%. Oac vm`ada k}ha de}`hbazba`icmo Cmmfo# ‟
Vi z|ahnatefv xav om`fmgi|to i` tom ce`h}evtef naz. Etv fici`e{atei` xav i`cu tomcavt vtahm ig a xawmluxawm mza`vei` ig ce`h}evtefv g|in a `a||ix devfezce`m dmace`h xeto tom zouvefac data ig vzmmfo ti a l|iad devfezce`m tabe`h e` gi|n# nma`e`h# a`d fi`tmt
― /Cmmfo# 15?6%.Na`abaca nab`a tmcao deab}e vmlahae lahea` ua`h tedab tm|zevaoba` da|e laoava#v}cet dee`hba|e zm`te`h`ua bi`tmbv zmnabaea` laoava ba|m`a nab`a et} vmcac} lm|}lao}lao lm|dava|ba` bi`tmbv zmnabaea` et}.Deteceb lahaena`a za|a aoce nm`mnzatba` nab`a vmlahae oac ua`h zm`te`h#Heclm|t O. Oa|na` /1581% nm`uml}tba` teha zm`dmbata` ua`h deh}`aba`# uab`e; a%bmcinzib Fa|`az# Aum|# Cmxev# Ge|to# Omnzmc# Vmcca|v# Q}e`m ua`h nmna`da`h nab`a lm|tacea` dm`ha` l}bte da` e`gm|m`ve# l% bmcinzib Ni||ev# Vtmwm`vi`# H|efm# Bat{ ua`hnmna`da`h nab`a vmlahae v}at} edm# hahava`# zm|avaa`# ata} hm|aba` vml}ao}`hbaza` leva deh}`aba` }`t}b lm|bin}`ebave# f% bmcinzib Xetthm`vtme`# A}vte`#Oa|m# @ixmccVneto# Vma|cm# Acvti` ua`h nmna`da`h nab`a vmlahae vmv}at} ua`h lm|tacea` dm`ha` te`dab t}t}| /Vtme`lm|h da` Kafiliwetv# 1581%.Tmi|e ua`h zm|tana dezaoane vmlahae tmi|e ua`h nm`haldeba` avzmb viveac laoava. Dacan za`da`ha``ua# tmi|e e`e k}ha nm`m|ena laoava z|ewat de na`a vmvmi|a`haba` nm`h}`hbazba` hahava``ua ta`za oa|}v nm`hbin}`ebaveba``ua dm`ha` i|a`hcae`. @an}` e`e va`hat tedab a|h}nm`tateg. Tmi|e bmd}a nmnecebe d}a v}d}t za`da`h.Nm`}|}t Bat{# vmvmi|a`h nmnaoane batabata ua`h de}`hbazba` vmvmi|a`h dm`ha`nm`
dmfidm
batabata tm|vml}t bm dacan hahava` ua`h lm|tacea`. Vmda`hba` nm`}|}tH|efm# vmvmi|a`h nm`ha|teba` ‟Z― dm`ha` batabata dacan bin}`ebave na`abacavmvmi|a`h nm`hh}`aba``ua bmteba nm`a|eb zm|oatea` vmvmi|a`h }`t}b nmnebe|ba``ua.Tmi|e bmteha adacao tmi|e ua`h nm`dazat zm|oatea` da|e Foinvbu. Dea lm|zm`dazat tmi|ee`e nm`halaeba` avzmbavzmb b|mateg zm`hh}`aa` laoava. Laoava ada devmlalba` icmo}`hbaza` }`t}b lm|zm`dazat vmfa|a lmlav. Icmo ba|m`a et}# tmcaao z|ahnateb dazatdelmdaba` atav z|ahnateb vmlahae vmv}at} ua`h deaka|ba` da` z|ahnateb vmlahaevmv}at} ua`h nmxa|`ae te`daba` nm`haka|. Z|ahnateb vmlahae vmv}at} ua`h deaka|ba`delahe nm`kade z|ahnateb vmlahae leda`h bakea` ce`h}evteb da` z|ahnateb vmlahae vacaovat} vmhe de dacan laoava /vmlahae g}`hve bin}`ebateg% ua`h ca{en`ua devanzaeba` dedacan zm`haka|a` laoava ave`h /Bavxa`te Z}|xi# 155:%.Z|ahnateb nm`}|}t Foa|cmv Ni||ev vmlahaena`a deb}tez icmo Bavxa`te Z}|xi/155:% dedmge`eveba` vmlahae tmcaao nm`hm`ae o}l}`ha` de a`ta|a canla`h da`zm`agve|`ua. Dea nmnl}at zmnlatava` dmge`eve }`t}b nmnl}at zm`mhava` a`ta|avmna`teb da` z|ahnateb. Bavxa`te Z}|xi /155:% nmnlm|e dmge`eve ua`h tmhav laoxaz|ahnateb adacao tmcaao nm`hm`ae vmhaca avzmb nab`a ua`h tedab tm|fab}z de dacantmi|e vmna`teb. Dea nm`mba`ba` zada tmcaao nab`a t}t}|a` /
}ttm|a`fm
% ua`h nm|}zaba`zm`h}ka|a` bacenat zada bi`tmbv ua`h vmv}`hh}o`ua ata} nab`a ua`h tm|ebat bi`tmbv/
fi`tmtdmzm`dm`t
% /Bavxa`te Z}|xi# 155:%.Xeka`a nmnlm|e zm`kmcava` zm`hm|tea` a`ta|a vmna`teb da` z|ahnateb vmlahaefala`hfala`h ecn} laoava ua`h nm`mcaao nab`anab`a vat}a` ce`h}ac# oa`ua vakavmna`teb nmnzmcaka|e nab`a vmfa|a mbvtm|`ac /Xeka`a# 1557%. Bata ‟lah}vvmfa|a

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