This book is a continuation of
Mathematical Olympiads 1996-1997: Olym-piad Problems from Around the World
, published by the American Math-ematics Competitions. It contains solutions to the problems from 34 na-tional and regional contests featured in the earlier book, together withselected problems (without solutions) from national and regional contestsgiven during 1998.This collection is intended as practice for the serious student whowishes to improve his or her performance on the USAMO. Some of theproblems are comparable to the USAMO in that they came from na-tional contests. Others are harder, as some countries ﬁrst have a nationalolympiad, and later one or more exams to select a team for the IMO. Andsome problems come from regional international contests (“mini-IMOs”).Diﬀerent nations have diﬀerent mathematical cultures, so you will ﬁndsome of these problems extremely hard and some rather easy. We havetried to present a wide variety of problems, especially from those countriesthat have often done well at the IMO.Each contest has its own time limit. We have not furnished this infor-mation, because we have not always included complete exams. As a ruleof thumb, most contests allow a time limit ranging between one-half toone full hour per problem.Thanks to the following students of the 1998 and 1999 MathematicalOlympiad Summer Programs for their help in preparing and proofreadingsolutions: David Arthur, Reid Barton, Gabriel Carroll, Chi-Bong Chan,Lawrence Detlor, Daniel Katz, George Lee, Po-Shen Loh, Yogesh More,Oaz Nir, David Speyer, Paul Valiant, Melanie Wood. Without their ef-forts, this work would not have been possible. Thanks also to AlexanderSoifer for correcting an early draft of the manuscript.The problems in this publication are copyrighted. Requests for repro-duction permissions should be directed to:Dr. Walter MientkaSecretary, IMO Advisory Board1740 Vine StreetLincoln, NE 68588-0658, USA.