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Effect of Inductive Posts on Y-junction Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Slot Antenna Array

Effect of Inductive Posts on Y-junction Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Slot Antenna Array



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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 22, Issue 1, October 2013 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 22, Issue 1, October 2013 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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Published by: Journal of Telecommunications on Nov 04, 2013
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Effect of Inductive Posts on Y-junction Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Slot Antenna Array
Sourav Moitra, A. K. Mukhopadhay and A. K. Bhattacharjee
The Effect of introduction of Inductive Posts over Single layer Y-junction Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Slot Antenna Array has been studied in this paper. Single and double Inductive posts have been introduced over basic SIW Antenna Array designed using Y-junction power divider consisting of symmetrical linearly polarized slot array antenna elements over a substrate of dielectric constant of 3.2 and thickness 0.782mm. Alternating offsets in the slots is used to generate in-phase electric field distributions on every radiating slot. The array configurations with different Inductive post alignment have been supported with necessary results. The results confirm the antenna suitable for K-band applications. The array has been simulated and optimized using full-wave EM CAD Tool CST Microwave Studio. The designs are simple and come with high gain over the operable bandwidth.
Index Terms
Substrate Integrated Circuits (SIC), Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW), Inductive Posts, Y-junction power divider, Antenna Array, K-band .
1 I
UBSTRATE Substrate integrated circuits (SICs) con-cept was proposed to provide a compact as well as cost-effective solution for integration of both planar and non-planar transmission line sections within a single substrate [1]. This resulted in further investigation in these circuits and many of them have been successfully implemented on design of several of microwave and mil-limeter-wave circuits and systems. Substrate integrated Waveguides (SIW) comes under this category and has received the most attention because of its simple design and easy applicability. SIW technology uses arrays of me-talized vias which acts as the metallic sidewalls of the conventional rectangular waveguide. Hence, SIW struc-tures can be used as a planar waveguide transmission line. In this article we focused our study on Slot array antennas based on SIW Technology. Presently Slot An-tennas are widely employed in radar and satellite com-munication systems due to their high gain, high radiation efficiency, low cross-polarization levels and effective con-trol over the radiation patterns. Several contributions re-lated to Waveguide slotted antenna arrays have been published in [2-3]. However metallic waveguide antennas suffer from several disadvantages like bulkiness and high manufacturing cost. Again they are difficult to be inte-grated with other microwave or millimeter wave planar active or passive circuits. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is a reliable technology in this regard as it over-comes these disadvantages and at the same time inherits all the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides. SIW structures can be integrated with other microwave components quite easily without introduction of any in-sertion loss [4-6]. One major disadvantage of SIW slot array antennas is that they suffer from a very limited frequency bandwidth sim-ilar to that of Waveguide slot array antennas. The com-bined effect of very small SIW height and dielectric filling results in stronger mutual coupling between the slots. These factors lead to a much narrower frequency band-width that is usually around 3% or less. Several methods have been proposed for increasing the bandwidth of the SIW slot array [7-8]. In our design, we focused on effect of introducing Inductive posts over a basic K-band SIW slot array antenna suitable for satellite applications. For gen-eration of in-phase electric field distributions on every radiating slot, alternating offsets and tilt angles has been adopted for waveguide-fed shunt and series slot array antennas respectively. The following sections describe the design details of the study with appropriate outcomes which may prove very useful for using the antenna array for specific applications.
Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) is structure con-sisting of dielectric substrate in between two metal con-ducting planes similar to that of microstrip lines. A series of metallic vias are placed along the edges to produce a waveguide like structure as shown in Fig. 1. This makes the non-planar rectangular waveguide in planar form
Sourav Moitra is B-Tech, M-Tech Assistant Professor in the Dept of Elec-tronics & Communication Engineering, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, India.
 A. K. Mukhopadhyay is M.Tech (ECE) from IIT Kharagpur and Ph.D (Engg), Jadavpur University, Head, Dept. of Computer Science & Engi-neering, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College Durgapur, India.
 A. K. Bhattacharjee is B.E. M.E. PhD, Professor in Electronics & Commu-nication Engineering Dept. in National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India.
compatible with existing planar processing techniques. SIWs exhibit propagation characteristics similar to that of classical rectangular waveguides. The modes of the SIW practically coincide with a subset of the modes of the rec-tangular waveguide, namely with the TE
 modes, with
=1, 2, … The fundamental mode is similar to the TE
 mode of a rectangular waveguide, with vertical electric current density on the side walls. TM modes cannot exist in the SIW, due to the gaps between metal vias: in fact, transverse magnetic fields determine longitudinal surface current. Due to the presence of the gaps, longitudinal sur-face current is subject to a strong radiation, preventing the propagation of TM modes [10]. Small posts and small spacing between via-posts may be used to reduce disper-sion, leakage loss, and bandstop properties of the SIW structure and also simplify the design procedure and make the PCB design much more compact [9]. Fig.1. Basic SIW structure realized on a dielectric sub-strate The proposed structure has been fed with a microstrip line section. This section of the microstrip line connecting the radiating surface has been tapered for proper imped-ance matching. The dimensions of the taper have been optimized in CST Microwave Studio to ensure minimal insertion loss. The structure used is commonly known to
us as ‘Microstrip
SIW Transition’. Several other trans
i-tion techniques can be consulted in [6]. Fig.2. Microstrip-to-SIW Transition The basic design started with a simple SIW antenna structure consisting of 4 slots with equi-directional offsets in each side from the centre alternatively. The design eq-uations for SIW, which may be given as,
 is the separation between via rows (centre to centre),
 is the width of DFW,
 is the diameter,
 is the pitch (as shown in Figure 1). The cut-off frequency of the SIW can be obtained by the following relation.
eff  c
c f  
is the light velocity in vacuum. In our design we focused on the K-band applications and in our case the antenna has been designed to resonate at frequency of 23.12GHz. The dimensions of the slots are important for the antenna to behave as a slot antenna. The dimensions of the slots can be obtained with the help of the following relations [9].
 Fig.3. Slot dimensions & gap between slots The basic 4 slot Y-junction SIW antenna array with its return loss characteristics has been shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. The 4 slot Y-junction SIW antenna has been found to resonate in K-band at around 23.12 GHz with a return loss of nearly 25 dB. Higher gain has been obtained by modifying the single element 4 slot SIW antenna into a Y- junction array (Fig. 4.) without much deviation of other useful antenna parameters. Details of the dimensions can be found in Table I. Gain of the proposed antenna has been shown in Fig 6a (E-plane) and Fig 6b (H-plane) re-spectively.
(2) (1) (3)
Fig. 4. Basic 4 slot Y-junction SIW antenna array structure Fig. 5. Magnitude of S-parameter vs Frequency of 4 slot Y- junction SIW antenna array TABLE I
Symbol Dimension
d0 1.18 d1, d2 5 d3 2.3 d4 6.47 d5 0.5 d6 6.12 d7 15.24 d8 30 d9 5 d11 30 d12 78.12 d13 5.62 d14 11.24 Fig. 6a. Gain of 4 slot Y-junction SIW antenna array (E-plane) [Frequency: 23.12GHz; Main Lobe Magnitude: 12.4dBi; Main lobe direction: 175.0 degree; 3dB angular width: 10.2 degree] Fig. 6b. Gain of 4 slot Y-junction SIW antenna array (H-plane) [Frequency: 23.12GHz; Main Lobe Magnitude: 11.2dBi; Main lobe direction: 175.0 degree; 3dB angular width: 58.6 degree] Single Inductive post is now being introduced in the basic Y-junction SIW antenna array as shown in Fig 8. The di-ameter of the post has been considered to be 0.8mm after extensive study and the effect of this post over the Return loss characteristics are produced in Fig. 9. of induction post has been reported in 1978 by T. A. Abele where the effect of inductive post on rectangular waveguides has been elaborated [11]. Fig. 7. Inductive post & Equivalent Circuit The results show a considerable amount of variation in return loss as well as the resonating frequency for varia-tion of the post in X-axis (horizontal axis). However the post is fixed in terms of Y axis (vertical axis) at y=0 (con-sidering the total structure to be symmetric in both sides of X axis). For x=5mm towards the feed, maximum return loss (around 34dB) is obtained while the structure is found to resonate at 23.74GHz.

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