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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MICROELECTRONICS
1.2 EVOLUTION OF MICROSENSORS
1.3 EVOLUTION OF MEMS
1.4 EMERGENCE OF MICROMACHINES
Electronic Materials and Processing
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND THEIR DEPOSITION
2.2.1 Oxide Film Formation by Thermal Oxidation
2.3.3 Resist
2.3.4 Lift-off Technique
2.4 ETCHING ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
2.4.1 Wet Chemical Etching
2.4.2 Dry Etching
2.5 DOPING SEMICONDUCTORS
2.5.1 Diffusion
2.5.2 Ion Implantation
2.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
3.1 OVERVIEW
3.1.1 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
MeMS Materials and their Preparation
3.2.1 Physical and Chemical Properties
3.2.2 Metallisation
3.3 SEMICONDUCTORS
3.3.1 Semiconductors: Electrical and Chemical Properties
3.3.2 Semiconductors: Growth and Deposition
3.4 CERAMIC, POLYMERIC, AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Standard Microelectronic Technologies
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 WAFER PREPARATION
4.2.1 Crystal Growth
4.2.2 Wafer Manufacture
4.2.3 Epitaxial Deposition
4.3 MONOLITHIC PROCESSING
4.3.1 Bipolar Processing
4.3.2 Characteristics of BJTs
4.3.3 MOS Processing
4.3.4 Characteristics of FETs
4.3.5 SOI CMOS Processing
4.6.2 Multichip Modules
4.6.3 Ball Grid Array
4.7 PROGRAMMABLE DEVICES AND ASICs
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Silicon Micromaching: Bulk
5.2 ISOTROPIC AND ORIENTATION-DEPENDENT WET ETCHING
5.3 ETCH-STOP TECHNIQUES
• doping-selective etching (DSE)
5.3.1 Doping-Selective Etching (DSE)
5.3.2 Conventional Bias-Dependent BSE or Electrochemical Etch-Stop
5.3.4 Photovoltaic Electrochemical Etch-Stop Technique (PHET)
5.4 DRY ETCHING
5.5 BURIED OXIDE PROCESS
5.6 SILICON FUSION BONDING
5.6.1 Wafer Fusion
5.6.2 Annealing Treatment
5.6.3 Fusion of Silicon-Based Materials
5.7 ANODIC BONDING
5.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 SACRIFICIAL LAYER TECHNOLOGY
Silicon Micromaching: Surface
6.2.1 Simple Process
6.2.2 Sacrificial Layer Processes Utilising more than One Structural Layer
6.3 MATERIAL SYSTEMS IN SACRIFICIAL LAYER TECHNOLOGY
6.3.1 Polycrystalline Silicon and Silicon Dioxide
6.3.2 Polyimide and Aluminum
6.4 SURFACE MICROMACHINING USING PLASMA ETCHING
6.5 COMBINED 1C TECHNOLOGY AND ANISOTROPIC WET ETCHING
6.6 PROCESSES USING BOTH BULK AND SURFACE MICROMACHINING
6.7 ADHESION PROBLEMS IN SURFACE MICROMACHINING
6.8 SURFACE VERSUS BULK MICROMACHINING
7.1 INTRODUCTION
Microstereolithography for MEMS
7.1.1 Photopolymerisation
7.1.2 Stereolithographic System
7.2 MICROSTEREOLITHOGRAPHY
7.3 SCANNING METHOD
7.3.1 Classical MSL
7.3.2 IH Process
7.3.3 Mass-IH Process
7.3.4 Super-IH Process
7.4 TWO-PHOTON MSL
7.5 OTHER MSL APPROACHES
7.6 PROJECTION METHOD
7.6.1 Mask-Projection MSL
7.6.2 Dynamic Mask-Projection MSL
7.7.1 Ceramic MSL
7.7.3 Metal–Polymer Microstructures
7.7.4 Localised Electrochemical Deposition
7.8 COMBINED SILICON AND POLYMERIC STRUCTURES
7.8.1 Architecture Combination by Photoforming Process
7.8.2 MSL Integrated with Thick Film Lithography
7.8.3 AMANDA Process
7.9 APPLICATIONS
7.9.1 Microactuators Fabricated by MSL
7.9.2 Microconcentrator
7.9.3 Microdevices Fabricated by the AMANDA Process
7.10 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Microsensors
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 THERMAL SENSORS
8.2.1 Resistive Temperature Microsensors
8.2.2 Microthermocouples
8.2.3 Thermodiodes and Thermotransistors
8.2.4 SAW Temperature Sensor
8.3 RADIATION SENSORS
8.3.1 Photoconductive Devices
8.3.2 Photovoltaic Devices
8.3.3 Pyroelectric Devices
8.3.4 Microantenna
8.4 MECHANICAL SENSORS
8.4.1 Overview
8.4.2 Micromechanical Components and Statics
8.4.3 Microshuttles and Dynamics
8.4.4 Mechanical Microstmctures
8.4.5 Pressure Microsensors
8.4.6 Microaccelerometers
8.4.7 Microgyrometers
8.4.8 Flow Microsensors
8.5 MAGNETIC SENSORS
8.5.1 Magnetogalvanic Microsensors
8.5.2 Magnetoresistive Devices
8.5.3 Magnetodiodes and Magnetotransistors
8.5.4 Acoustic Devices and SQUIDs
8.6 BIO(CHEMICAL) SENSORS
8.6.1 Conductimetric Devices
8.6.2 Potentiometric Devices
8.6.3 Others
8.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Introduction to SAW Devices
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 SAW DEVICE DEVELOPMENT AND HISTORY
9.3 THE PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT
9.3.1 Interdigital Transducers in SAW Devices
9.4 ACOUSTIC WAVES
9.4.1 Rayleigh Surface Acoustic Waves
9.4.2 Shear Horizontal Acoustic Waves
9.4.3 Love Surface Acoustic Waves
9.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Surface Acoustic Waves in Solids
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION
10.3 ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION REPRESENTATION
10.4 INTRODUCTION TO ACOUSTICS
10.4.1 Particle Displacement and Strain
10.4.2 Stress
10.4.3 The Piezoelectric Effect
10.5 ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION
10.5.2 Shear Horizontal or Acoustic Plate Modes
10.5.3 Love Modes
10.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
REFERENCES
11.1 INTRODUCTION TO IDT SAW SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION
11.2 ACOUSTIC WAVE SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION
11.2.1 Introduction
11.3 NETWORK ANALYSER AND VECTOR VOLTMETER
11.4 ANALOGUE (AMPLITUDE) MEASURING SYSTEM
11.5 PHASE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
11.6 FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
11.7 ACOUSTIC WAVE SENSOR OUTPUT FREQUENCY TRANSLATION
11.8 MEASUREMENT SETUP
11.9 CALIBRATION
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.2 SAW-IDT MICROSENSOR FABRICATION
12.2.1 Mask Generation
IDT Microsensor Fabrication
12.2.2 Wafer Preparation
12.2.3 Metallisation
12.2.4 Photolithography
12.2.5 Wafer Dicing
12.3 DEPOSITION OF WAVEGUIDE LAYER
12.3.1 Introduction
12.3.2 TMS PECVD Process and Conditions
12.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS
IDT Microsensors
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 SAW DEVICE MODELING VIA COUPLED-MODE THEORY
13.3 WIRELESS SAW-BASED MICROSENSORS
13.4 APPLICATIONS
13.4.1 Strain Sensor
13.4.2 Temperature Sensor
13.4.3 Pressure Sensor
13.4.4 Humidity Sensor
13.4.5 SAW-Based Gyroscope
13.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
MEMS-IDT Microsensors
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 PRINCIPLES OF A MEMS-IDT ACCELEROMETER
14.3 FABRICATION OF A MEMS-IDT ACCELEROMETER
14.3.1 Fabrication of the SAW Device
14.3.2 Integration of the SAW Device and Seismic Mass
14.4 TESTING OF A MEMS-IDT ACCELEROMETER
14.4.1 Measurement Setup
14.4.2 Calibration Procedure
14.4.3 Time Domain Measurement
14.4.4 Experimental
14.4.5 Fabrication of Seismic Mass
14.5 WIRELESS READOUT
14.6 HYBRID ACCELEROMETERS AND GYROSCOPES
14.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
15.1 INTRODUCTION
Smart Sensors and MEMS
15.2 SMART SENSORS
15.3 MEMS DEVICES
15.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS
List of Some Important Terms
Unit Conversion Factors
Properties of Electronic & MEMS Metallic Materials
Properties of Electronic & MEMS Semiconducting Materials
Material:
Coupled-mode Modeling of a SAW Device
Suggested Further Reading
Webography
Index
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Microsensors, MEMS and Smart Devices - Gardner Varadhan and Awadelkarim.pdf

Microsensors, MEMS and Smart Devices - Gardner Varadhan and Awadelkarim.pdf

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Published by: Victor Avila Carrillo on Nov 04, 2013
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