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Camay Hard Copy1

Camay Hard Copy1



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Published by: xohair1 on Aug 05, 2009
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Neither William Procter nor James Gamble ever intended to settle in Cincinnati.Although the city was a busy center of commerce and industry in the earlynineteenth century, William, emigrating from England, and James, arriving fromIreland, were headed farther west.Despite their intentions, however, both men ended their travels when they arrivedat the Queen City of the West — William took care of his ailing wife, Martha, whosoon died, and James sought medical attention for himself.William Procter quickly established himself as a candle maker. James Gambleapprenticed himself to a soap maker. The two might never have met had they notmarried sisters, Olivia and Elizabeth Norris, whose father convinced his newsons-in-law to become business partners. In 1837, as a result of Alexander Norris' suggestion, a bold new enterprise was born: Procter & Gamble.On April 12, 1837, William Procter and James Gamble started making and sellingtheir soap and candles. On August 22, they formalized their business relationshipby pledging $3,596.47 apiece. The formal partnership agreement was signed onOctober 31, 1837.
The Moon and Stars began to appear in the 1850s as the unofficial trademark of Procter & Gamble. Wharf hands used the symbol to distinguish boxes of Star Candles. By the 1860s, the Moon and Stars appeared on all Company productsand correspondence. Once a staple of the Company's product line, candlesdeclined in popularity with the invention of the electric light bulb. The Companydiscontinued candle manufacturing in the 1920s.
Twenty-two years after the partnership was formed, P&G sales reached $1million. The Company now employed 80 people.
During the Civil War, Procter & Gamble was awarded several contracts to supplysoap and candles to the Union armies. These orders kept the factory busy day
and night, building the Company's reputation as soldiers returned home with their P&G products.
James Norris Gamble, son of the founder and a trained chemist, developed aninexpensive white soap equal to high-quality, imported castiles. Inspiration for thesoap's name —
— came to Harley Procter, the founder's son, as he readthe words "out of ivory palaces" in the Bible one Sunday in church. The nameseemed a perfect match for the white soap's purity, mildness and long-lastingqualities.
Harley Procter convinced the partners to allocate $11,000 to advertise Ivorynationally for the first time. Ivory's purity and floating capability were firstadvertised across the country in "The Independent," a weekly newspaper.
Production began in the Ivorydale factory. Ivorydale replaced the Central Avenueplant, which was heavily damaged by fire in 1884. Designed by noted industrialarchitect Solon Beman, the plant incorporated the latest technological advanceswith a pleasant work environment for employees — a progressive approach atthat time.
To address the storm of local and national labor unrest, P&G instituted apioneering profit-sharing program for factory workers. This voluntary program,conceived by William Cooper Procter, grandson of the founder, gave employeesa stake in the Company. William Cooper Procter wanted this program to helpworkers realize their vital roles in the Company's success.
William Alexander Procter assumes leadership of the Company. By 1890, P&Gwas selling more than 30
different types of soap
, including Ivory®.After running the Company as a partnership for 53 years, the partnersincorporated to raise additional capital for expansion. William Alexander Procter,son of the founder, was named first President. P&G set up an analytical lab at
Ivorydale to study and improve the soap-making process. It was one of theearliest product research labs in American industry.
P&G's first color print advertisement — an ad for Ivory — appeared in
magazine picturing this "Ivory Lady."
In order to meet the demands of growing national markets, P&G began buildingoutside of Cincinnati for the first time. This increased capacity and improveddistribution of products to customers.
William Cooper Procter became the head of the Company following the death of his father, William Alexander Procter.
P&G introduced Crisco, the first all-vegetable shortening. Crisco® provided ahealthier alternative to cooking with animal fats and was more economical thanbutter.
The Company built its first manufacturing facility outside the United States, inCanada. Employing 75 people, the plant produced Ivory soap and Crisco.
The Chemicals Division was established to formalize research procedures anddevelop new products. The Company began to actively recruit researchers.
William Cooper Procter continued his efforts to institutionalize the relationshipbetween the Company and its employees. The articles of incorporation wererevised to include the directive that the "interests of the Company and itsemployees are inseparable."
Seasonal purchases of P&G products by wholesalers led to uneven productionneeds and layoffs at Ivorydale. In response, P&G announced a plan to selldirectly to retailers and hired 450 salesmen. This change stabilized production,

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