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Malaria in Under Five Children and Help Seeking Behavior of Mothers in Calabar, Nigeria.pdf

Malaria in Under Five Children and Help Seeking Behavior of Mothers in Calabar, Nigeria.pdf

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Published by Alexander Decker
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org

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Published by: Alexander Decker on Nov 05, 2013
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Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-607X (Pper! ISSN 222"-0"6" (#nline! $ol.%& No.'& 20%
2
Malaria in Under Five Children and Help Seeking Behavior of Mothers in Calabar, Nigeria
)etri*e +. ,ogn
ntoni dindu
2
*
. S*ool o/ idwi/ery& Cl1r& Cross iver Stte& Nigeri. 2. Deprt3ent o/ Pu1li* ,elt& College o/ edi*l S*ien*es& niversity o/ Cl1r& Cross iver Stte&  Nigeri. 5 ntoni.dinduyoo.*o3& dinduo1souni*l.edu.ng
Abstract
lri is  serious pu1li* elt pro1le3 worldwide& yet prevent1le nd tret1le. ,owever& in 200 te disese illed n esti3ted 660& 000 people lrgely *ildren under /ive yers in su1-Srn /ri*8 te epu1li* o/ Congo nd Nigeri **ount /or 3ore tn 409 o/ esti3ted glo1l 3lri dets (:,#& 20%!. ;ederl inistry o/ ,elt (;#,! reports Nigeri **ounts /or one <urter o/ ll 3lri *ses in /ri*& one o/ te world=s igest rtes o/ ll *use -3ortlity /or *ildren under /ive& nd 1out one in si> *ildren die 1e/ore teir /i/t 1irtdy (;#,& 202!. In Cross iver Stte under /ive 3ortlity o/ 76 per 000 1irts nd in/nt 3ortlity o/ 20 per 000 1irts& pl*ing Cross iver 3ong tose wit te igest *ild dets in te *ountry( Stte inistry o/ ,elt& 200!& nd 3lri prevlen*e o/ '.?9 (Ntionl Popultion Co33ission& 200'!. ,en*e& te 3lri *ontrol trgets in*lude 009 *ildren under /ive yers nd pregnnt wo3en to use 3os<uito nets 1y 20" (Co33unity ,elt Deprt3ent& 20%!. #1@e*tive o/ te study ws to deter3ine elp seeing 1evior o/ 3oters wit *ildren less tn /ive yers& nd /*tors tt in/luen*ed 1evior. :e rndo3ly sele*ted si> pri3ry elt /*ilities out o/ 4& nd d3inistered  stru*tured <uestionnire to /our undred (400! wo3en wo 1rougt teir si* *ildren to outptient deprt3ent o/ sele*ted elt /*ilities& nd gve orl in/or3ed *onsent. Stte inistry o/ ,elt gve eti*l *lern*e /or **ess to *o33unity nd elt /*ilities. ost& %70 ('%9! respondents *o3pleted te <uestionnire& %79 were 3rried& "09 d pri3ry edu*tion& 269 se*ondry& nd 09 tertiry& 429 were o3e3ers& %9 ' -2% yers& nd "49 o/ *ildren were witin one yer. ny respondents 469 1rougt 11ies to elt /*ility due to /ever& nd %2.49 sid *ild d /ever /or over  wee& yet %'.09 gve /ever s sy3pto3 o/ 3lri nd %'.49 3os<uito 1ite. ost '69 d erd o/ 3lri lrgely /ro3 ele*troni* 3edi 40."9 nd prents %2.49. ,owever& despite nowledge 1out 3lri& %"9 gve tepid sponging& %9 er1l ene3& 279 gve 11y le/t over drugs8 409 sid tret3ent t o3e lsted 4 to 6 dys nd 29 3ore tn  wee. ,o3e intervention led to *ild=s illness worsening 409& nd i3proved %?9. espondents delyed ting *ildren to ospitl 1e*use tey d no ti3e %".9& us1nd ws not t o3e %09& d no 3oney 22.79& d no trnsport 6.29 nd *usto3ry to /irst tret t o3e 6.09. ;urter3ore& "2.49 sid ospitl ws too /r /ro3 residen*e nd 4.09 no ospitl in lo*lity& 64."9 sid /ter ws responsi1le /or *ild=s tret3ent. Cost o/ *re 47."9& trnsporttion %2.79& witing ti3e 0.09 nd l* o/ ti3e '.29 were 3@or /*tors //e*ting elp seeing. Ais study sows tt signi/i*nt reltionsip e>ists  1etween 3oter=s elt seeing 1evior nd out*o3e o/ *ild=s illness. ;urter& suggests s glo1l nd ntionl e//orts *ontinue& te role o/ /ters in redu*ing 3or1idity nd 3ortlity 3ong in/nts re<uires *onsider1le ttention& prti*ulrly in ptrir*l trditionl so*ieties& were 3oters depend on de*isions o/ us1nds to see elp /or te *ild.
Ke !ords"
 lri& Cildren nd lri& ,elp Seeing )evior o/ oters.
#$%$ &ntrod'ction
lri is  serious pu1li* elt pro1le3 worldwide& yet prevent1le nd tret1le. ,owever& in 200 te disese illed n esti3ted 660& 000 people lrgely *ildren under /ive yers in su1-Srn /ri*8 te epu1li* o/ Congo nd Nigeri **ount /or 3ore tn 409 o/ esti3ted glo1l 3lri dets (:,#& 20%!. lri overlp wit oter diseses& di//i*ult to put 3lri s *use o/ det prti*ulrly in *ildren wo 3y lso su//er oter *onditions& respirtory in/e*tions& dirre& nd 3lnutrition (:,#& 202!. ;ederl inistry o/ ,elt (;#,! reports Nigeri **ounts /or one <urter o/ ll 3lri *ses in /ri*& nd one o/ te world=s igest rtes o/ ll *use 3ortlity /or *ildren under /ive& 1out one in si> *ildren die 1e/ore teir /i/t 1irtdy (;#,& 202!. lri is ende3i* in Nigeri& **ounts /or nerly 0 3illion *lini*lly dignosed *ses per yer& 60 per *ent o/ outptient visits& nd %0 per *ent o/ ospitliBtion8 esti3ted %00&000 *ildren die o/ 3lri e* yer. In ddition& 3lri *ontri1utes up to  per *ent o/ 3ternl 3ortlity& 2"9 in/nt 3ortlity nd %09 under /ive 3ortlity (Ntionl Popultion Co33ission& 200'!. lri is *o33on nd  serious elt *llenge in Cross iver Stte. Cildren under /ive yers 3e up 209 o/ te esti3ted 2&???&'66 people. ,elt indi*tors re poor wit 3ternl 3ortlity 2000 per 00& 000 1irts& under /ive 3ortlity o/ 76 per 000 1irts nd in/nt 3ortlity o/ 20 per 000 1irts& pl*ing Cross iver
 
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-607X (Pper! ISSN 222"-0"6" (#nline! $ol.%& No.'& 20%
22 3ong tose wit te igest 3ternl nd *ild dets in te *ountry( Stte inistry o/ ,elt& 200!. Cross-iver d  3lri prevlen*e o/ '.?9 (Ntionl Popultion Co33ission& 200'! overn3ent strengtens nd dedi*tes te roll 1* 3lri progr3 in te Deprt3ent o/ Co33unity ,elt in te #//i*e o/ te overnor. Stte 3lri *ontrol trgets in*lude 009 persons t ris ve pro3pt **ess to pproprite tret3ent witin 24 ours 1y 20"8 nd 009 *ildren under /ive yers nd pregnnt wo3en to use 3os<uito nets 1y 20" ( Co33unity ,elt Deprt3ent& 20%!. .. #1@e*tives #1@e*tives o/ tis study were to deter3ine elp seeing 1evior o/ 3oters wit *ildren under /ive yers& teir nowledge o/ 3lri nd tret3ent options8 /*tors tt in/luen*e elp seeing 1evior& nd e//e*t o/ 1evior on *ildren. .2. etodology Ais study ws in Cl1r *pitl o/ Cross iver Stte& Niger Delt& sout -sout geopoliti*l Bone& witin te tropi*l rin /orest o/ Nigeri. Cl1r d 1out %72& ?4? people (Ntionl Popultion Co33ission& 2006!. Ais study ws li3ited to 3oters o/ *ildren under /ive yers wo 1rougt teir si* *ildren to outptient deprt3ents o/ sele*ted pri3ry elt *re (P,C! /*ilities. :e rndo3ly sele*ted si> pri3ry elt /*ilities out o/ 4& nd d3inistered  stru*tured <uestionnire to /our undred (400! wo3en wo gve orl in/or3ed *onsent. Stte inistry o/ ,elt gve eti*l *lern*e /or **ess to *o33unity nd elt /*ilities. Pre -testing <uestionnire ws t  P,C /*ility outside Cl1r wit 20 3oters rndo3ly sele*ted.
($%$ )iterat're evie!
2.. lo1l lri Control lri is te /i/t leding *use o/ det worldwide& se*ond leding *use o/ det in /ri*& nd l3ost l/ o/ te world popultion is t ris (:,#& 200!& It ills lrge nu31er o/ /ri*n *ildren e* yer nd 1ligts te li/e o/ 3ny 3illion& every %0 se*onds  *ild dies /ro3 3lri in /ri* (NIC+;& 200'!. Sesonl 3lri *e3oprevention /or in/nts is now possi1le. :orld ,elt #rgniBtion re*o33ends inter3ittent  preventive tret3ent troug i33uniBtion& n esti3ted 2? 3illion in/nts *ould 1ene/it /ro3 preventive terpy& yet only )urin ;so s dopted tis si3ple& s/e nd e//e*tive pro*edure ( :,#& 20%!. +//e*tive tret3ent o/ 3lri witin 24 ours /ro3 onset o/ sy3pto3 elps to prevent li/e tretening *o3pli*tions. n/ortuntely& 3ost *ildood dets /ro3 severe 3lri re o/ten due to dely in pro3pt tret3ent nd use o/ oter re3edies 1y 3oters 1e/ore ting te *ild to  elt /*ility. ,en*e& e//e*tive 3nge3ent o/ 3lri in *ildren under- /ive yers re<uires 3oters to see elp pro3ptly& o1tin& nd pply nti-3lri drugs. :,# ( 2006! rgues use o/ inse*ti*ide treted nets is e//e*tive in preventing 3lri& nd regulr use *ould redu*e under-/ive 3ortlity rte 1y %09 in ende3i* environ3ents& prti*ulrly long lsting inse*ti*ide nets. In ddition& due to in*resing level o/ 3os<uito resistn*e to nti-3lri drugs& te :orld ,elt #rgniBtion re*o33ended te use o/ *o31intion rter tn 3ono-terpy. lri *ontrol re<uires integrted ppro*& prevention& **ess to tret3ent& nd pro3pt tret3ent wit e//e*tive drugs. 2.2. lri Control in Nigeri +rly in '7" Nigeri *onstituted te Ntionl lri Control Co33ittee& wi* developed te /irst /ive-yer  pln o/ *tion '7" to '?0& o1@e*tive ws to redu*e 3lri 1urden 1y 2"9 in '?08 tis pln did not te o//& owever& *ontrol o/ 3lri 1e*3e @oint responsi1ility o/ /ederl& stte nd lo*l govern3ents. long wit te doption o/ Pri3ry ,elt Cre nd te /irst Ntionl ,elt Poli*y in '?'& ;ederl inistry developed ntionl guidelines on 3lri *ontrol. :it in*eption o/ te oll )* lri ()! Progr3 in ''?& ;#, developed  strtegi* pln /or 3lri in 2000 to *over 200 to 200"& e3erging /ro3 needs ssess3ent in /our rurl *o33unities o/ si> lo*l govern3ents. esults o/ ssess3ent in 200" sowed poor *ieve3ent& lrgely due li3ited resour*e to s*le up e//e*tive prevention nd tret3ent interventions8 nd in*resed resistn*e o/ 3lri prsites. Ae Ntionl lri Control Progr3 (NCP! is progressing wit in*resed /unding /ro3 te lo1l ;unds /or IDS& Au1er*ulosis nd lri. overn3ents re woring towrd *ieving /ive-yer strtegi* trgets in*rese 1y ?09 ouseolds wit verge o/ two inse*ti*ide treted nets (IANs! 1y 200 nd sustin *overge 1y 20%8 009 o/ pregnnt wo3en ttending nte ntl *lini* two or 3ore doses o/ inter3ittent preventive tret3ent 1y 20%. #ters re in*rese 1y ?09 *ildren under /ive yers sleeping under IAN 1y 200 nd sustin 1y 20%8 nd in*rese 1y ?09 persons treted wit e//e*tive nti 3lri witin 24 ours o/ sy3pto3 1y 20% (;#,& 202!. Ntionl 3ini3u3 p*ge /or 3lri *ontrol in*lude vil1ility o/ inse*ti*ide treted nets /or every pregnnt wo3n nd *ild under /ive yers8 use o/ rte3isnin 1sed *o31intion terpy (CA! /or un*o3pli*ted 3lri. InstitutionliBing *se 3nge3ent8 nd use o/ sulpdo>ine - pyri3et3ine /or inter3ittent prevention in pregnnt wo3en (;#,& 2007!. 2.%. Clini*l ni/esttion ;ever is  *o33on sy3pto3& oters re sivering& severe pins in te @oints& ed*e& vo3iting generliBe 1ody
 
Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-607X (Pper! ISSN 222"-0"6" (#nline! $ol.%& No.'& 20%
2%  pins& *onvulsion nd *o3& *ouging nd dirre. +rly dignosis nd tret3ent sve lives nd prevent te develop3ent o/ *o3pli*tion. Ae disese leds to det o/ten due to severe ne3i (Dunyo& 2000!. In/nts in wr3 *li3te& dirty environ3ents wit pools o/ wter nd unprote*ted o3es re igly t ris o/ 3os<uito 1ites. ,owever& 3ost *ses o/ 3lri do not present t elt /*ilities nd 3oters tend to try oter re3edies 1e/ore ting *ildren to te ospitl. Culturl 1elie/s nd pr*ti*es led to sel/-*re& o3e re3edies& nd use o/ trditionl elers in rurl *o33unities (Ny3ongo& 2002!. ;urter3ore& /3ily siBe& prity& edu*tionl sttus nd o**uption o/ te ed o/ /3ily& ge& gender nd 3ritl sttus //e*t elt seeing 1evior (old3n nd ,euveline& 2000!. nderstnd1ly& Nigeri Ntionl lri Control Progr3 reports tt 3lri  prsite3i is still ig 3ong *ildren& i3p*t o/ intervention s*le -up nti*ipted in /uture. ,iger  prevlen*e is in rurl *o33unities& soutwest geopoliti*l Bone nd 3ong *ildren& wose 3oters ve lower edu*tionl level (;#,& 202!. pid 3ultipli*tion o/ prsite in te liver destroys red 1lood *ells nd in/e*tion o/ oter *ells in te 1ody. Siri3 (200%! suggests tt depending on spe*ie o/ 3os<uito te in/e*ted person 1e*o3es ill wit 3lri witin  wee or 3onts& 1ut lrgely witin 7 to 2 dys. #ee nd #/or (2002! rgue per*eption nd opinion o/ *ild /ever seen s typi*l nd not re<uiring ortodo> *re& strongly in/luen*e *re seeing 1evior. ;urter3ore& people tend to per*eive severe 3lri *ses s 3ni/esttion o/ te E1d eye= nd elt /*ilities ne*essry s lst option. ,ill& Fendli nd uter (200%! in  study on 3oters= 1evior identi/ied ig /ever& in1ility to stnd or wl& re/usl to et& loss o/ *ons*iousness& severe dirre& nd severe vo3iting s /etures o/ 3lri. +pisode 1e*3e severe re<uiring tret3ent t  elt /*ility.
+$%$ ata Analsis and &nterpretation
%.. De3ogrpi* Cr*teristi*s ost respondents %70 ('%9! returned te <uestionnire& %7 (%79! were 3rried& "4(49! single& 0"(2?9! seprted& 2'('9! divor*ed8 ?4("09! d pri3ry edu*tion& '?(269! se*ondry edu*tion& %7(09! tertiry edu*tion. ost "4(429! were o3e3ers& 00 (279! /r3ers& "0(49! 1usinesspersons nd 4 (9! *ivil servnt (t1le !. ge respondents rnged /ro3 % (%9! were '-2% yers& 74 (209! %-?yers& "(49! %4-%'yers& %' (09! 2'-%%yers nd 40(9! " nd 1ove. #ver l/ o/ *ildren '?("49! ged 0 to yer8 %0(%"9! over  to % yers8 nd 42(9! over % to " yers (t1le 2!. %.2. Fnowledge on Sy3pto3& Cuse nd Sour*e o/ In/or3tion  Nerly l/& 70 (46.09! 1rougt 11y 1e*use o/ /ever& ?" (2%.09! 1do3inl pins& "4 (4."9! *old nd *trr& %' (0."9! dirre& nd 20 (6.09! *onvulsion. Durtion o/ sy3pto3s were less tn 24ours 00 (27.09! to % dys %0 (%".9!& 4 to 7 dys 20 (".49!& nd 20 (%2.49! sid te *ild d /ever /or 3ore tn  wee (t1le %!. ny 44 (%'.09! gve /ever s sy3pto3 o/ 3lri& %6 (%6.79! *oug& nd "% (4.%9! vo3iting8 nd *uses o/ 3lri were 3os<uito 1ites 46 (%'.49!& /ever %4 (%6.29!& disese 60 (6.29! oters %0 (?.9!.  lrge nu31er %"" ('6.09! d erd o/ 3lri& /ro3 ele*troni* 3edi "0 (40."9!& 20 (%2.49!  prents& ?" (2%.09! elt worers& nd 0 (2.?9! /riends (t1le 4!.
-able #" Marital stat's, level of ed'cation and occ'pation
 
Marital Stat's
 
N'.ber of espondents
 
/er cent
 rried %7 %79 Single "4 49 Seprted 0" 2?9 Divor*ed 2' '9 Co-1itting 4" 29
-otal
 
+0%
 
#%%1
 
2d'cational 3'alification
 Pri3ry s*ool ?4 "09 Se*ondry s*ool '? 269 Aertiry S*ool %7 09  No esponse " 49
-otal
 
+0%
 
#%%1
 
4cc'pation
;r3ers 00 %79 ,ousewives "4 429 Civil Servnt 4 9 )usiness :o3en "0 49 Students " 49
-otal
 
+0%
 
#%%1
 

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