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Tracking and Positioning of Mobiles in Telecommunication

Tracking and Positioning of Mobiles in Telecommunication

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Published by Wajeeha Kaifi

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Published by: Wajeeha Kaifi on Aug 06, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/24/2012

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TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF MOBILES IN TELECOMMUNICATION 
www.seminarson.com
1. ABSTRACT
Mobile positioning technology has become an important area of research, for emergency as well as for commercial services. Mobile positioning in cellular networkswill provide several services such as, locating stolen mobiles, emergency calls, different billing tariffs depending on where the call is originated, and methods to predict the user movement inside a region. The evolution to location-dependent services and applicationsin wireless systems continues to require the development of more accurate and reliablemobile positioning technologies. The major challenge to accurate location estimation is increating techniques that yield acceptable performance when the direct path from thetransmitter to the receiver is intermittently blocked. This is the Non-Line-Of-Sight(NLOS) problem, and it is known to be a major source of error since it systematicallycauses mobile to appear farther away from the base station (BS) than it actually is,thereby increasing the positioning error.In this paper, we present a simple method for mobile telephone tracking and positioning with high accuracy. Our paper presents the location of a mobile telephone bydrawing a plurality of circles with the radii being the distances between a mobiletelephone and a several base stations (it will be found using Time Of Arrival (TOA)) andthe base stations at their centers, and using location tracking curves connecting theintersection points between each circle pair instead of the common chords defined by thecircles. We use location tracking curves connecting the intersection points of the twocircles which will be drawn by ordinary TOA method, instead of the common chord as inTDOA.1
 
TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF MOBILES IN TELECOMMUNICATION 
www.seminarson.com
2. NEED FOR MOBILE TRACKING
Recent demands from new applications require positioning capabilities of mobiletelephones or other devices. The ability to obtain the geo-location of the MobileTelephone (MT) in the cellular system allows the network operators to facilitate newservices to the mobile users. The most immediate motivation for the cellular system to provide MT position is enhanced in accident emergency services. The positioning of themobile user could provide services like
Emergency service for subscriber safety.
Location sensitive billing.
Cellular Fraud detection.
Intelligent transport system services.
Efficient and effective network performance and management.
3. EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES & CONSTRAINTS
3.1. NETWORK ASSISTED GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM(GPS)
A mobile telephone can be located by a mobile telephone itself or through amobile telecommunication network. To locate the mobile telephone by itself, the mobiletelephone is provided with a GPS receiver to calculate its location in latitude andlongitude coordinates based on the location information received from a satellite throughthe GPS receiver.
Increases the price and the size of the mobile telephone.
The load on the mobile telephone is increased.
Power consumption is high.
3.2. NETWORK BASED MOBILE POSITIONING
2
 
TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF MOBILES IN TELECOMMUNICATION 
www.seminarson.com
In the case that the mobile telephone network locates the mobile telephone, atleast three base stations (BSs) receive a signal from the mobile telephone; calculate thedistances between the BSs and the mobile telephone using the arrival time of the signalsat the BSs, then determine the location of the mobile telephone using the trigonometry.This location service is provided generally by a location data processor included in a basestation controller (BSC). Upon a request for service about the location of a specificmobile subscriber, the BSC selects the three adjacent BSs surrounding the mobiletelephone for use in the location service, and these selected BSs are ready focommunication with the mobile telephone.
3.3. TIME OF ARRIVAL (TOA)
The TOA method calculates the distance of a mobile telephone and a BS based onthe TOA of a signal transmitted from the mobile telephone at the BS. It is assumed thatthe mobile telephone is located at the intersection point of three circles having the radiusof the distances between the BSs and the mobile telephone. The distance is calculated bythe following equation,
i
= C
τ
i
= sqrt ( (x
i
– X )
2
+ (y
i
– Y)
2
)
where,
C
– propagation speed of electromagnetic wave, 
τ
i
– propagation of time from the mobile telephone to i
th
base station,
x
i,
y
i
--
location of 
 
i
th
base station,
X, Y – 
mobile position.
3.4. TIME DIFFERENCE OF ARRIVAL (TDOA)
The TDOA method assumes that the TDOAs of a signal transmitted from themobile telephone at the three BSs define a set of points on a hyperbola, and the mobiletelephone is located at the intersection point of at least three hyperbolas.3

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