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Minerals

Minerals

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Published by hatem alsrour
Minerals (Major elements)
Minerals ( minor elements OR trace elements )
minerals- Functions -Food sources -Important Notes

minerals
Calcium
(Ca²⁺)
Potassium (K+)
Phosphorus (P)
Magnesium (Mg+)

minerals
Iron
(Fe)
Iodine
Zinc
(Zn)
Copper (Cu)
Selenium (Se)
Fluorine
(F)
Molybdenum (Mo)

Hatem Alsrour - King Saud University - College of Nursing


Minerals (Major elements)
Minerals ( minor elements OR trace elements )
minerals- Functions -Food sources -Important Notes

minerals
Calcium
(Ca²⁺)
Potassium (K+)
Phosphorus (P)
Magnesium (Mg+)

minerals
Iron
(Fe)
Iodine
Zinc
(Zn)
Copper (Cu)
Selenium (Se)
Fluorine
(F)
Molybdenum (Mo)

Hatem Alsrour - King Saud University - College of Nursing


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Published by: hatem alsrour on Aug 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Minerals (Major elements)
mineralsFunctionsFood sourcesImportant Notes
Calcium(Ca²⁺)
Help in blood clottingTransmission of nerveimpulse.
development of bonesand teeth.Increased permeabilityof cell membrane.
Contraction of skeletaland cardiac muscles.
milk and milk products.meat exchange list
fish (sardine)dark green vegetables.
most abundant mineral in the body.
99% is stored in the bones andteeth, 1% in the blood.
Absorption : adult (10 - 30 % ) ,children and pregnant women (50 -60 % )factors that can increase Caabsorption:
Acid environment in the GIT.
Calcium and phosphorusratio(1:1 to 2:1) in the diet.
increase vitamin D intake.
Presence of lactose in thediet .Calcium binders: Oxalic acid(in vegetables), phytic acid (incereals).
RDA : 800 mg/day for men,1000 mg for women,1500 mg/day for pregnantwomen.
Deficiency diseases:
Osteoporosis
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Potassium (K+)
Contraction of muscles(skeletal, especiallycardiac muscles).
Maintanance of waterbalance.Transmission of nerveimpulses.Carbohydrate andprotein metabolism.
Oranges
Bananas
dried fruits
meat and vegetables
Most abundant cation in intracellular fluid (98% in cells)
Level of potassium in the blood is regulated by aldosteronehormone.
Deficiency diseases:
Hyperkalemia(Symptoms: Weakness of heart contraction andrespiratory muscles.)
Hypokalemia(Symptoms: Tachycardia)
Phosphorus (P)
development of bonesand teeth.Transfer of energy incell (ATP).Component ophospholipids.
Buffer system.Milk and meat are the bestsources.
It is the Second most abundant mineral in the body.
85% with calcium in the bones to form calcium phosphate.
Closely related to calcium.
70% of dietary
compared to 10-30% of Ca.Deficiency disease:
End stage renal disease.
Hypophosphatemia
 
Magnesium(Mg+)
Synthesis of ATP.
Nerve impulse.
Activator of enzymes.
Relaxation of skeletalmuscles.
Green vegetables.whole grains.
70% is located in the bones.
combines with calcium and phosphorus.
30% is located inside cells.
Minerals ( minor elements OR trace elements )
mineralsFunctionsFood sourcesImportant NotesIron(Fe)
hemoglobin synthesis.
iron excretion.
synthesis of new RBC's .
meat
fish
poultry
cereals
dark greenvegetables
Physiological needs: need the more is absorb (as in pregnancy,during growth).
factors decreases iron absorption: High fiber diet. Surgicalremoval of stomach.About 10% of iron in mixed diet is absorbed.
Deficiency : (iron deficiency anemia , hypochromic macrolyticanemia )
deficiency anemia are:
Serum ferritin/Total iron bindingcapacity/Hemoglobin/hematocrit
Fatgue : decreased work performance/Risk of infectionincreased/Growth impairment in infants.
high risk groups are: infants/pregnantwomen/Adolescents/menstruation.
treatment: Iron supplementation and dietary management
Iodine
component of thyroidhormones.
regulate basal metabolicrate.
Sea food is thebest source.
Iodized table salt isthe major dietary .
Present in the body in very small quantities (20-30 mg).
about 75% is concentrated in thyroid glands.
Requirement : the average person is very low / Increasedamount is needed for the pregnant and lactating women.
Diseases Deficiency:
goiter or enlargement of thyroid gland.
Cretinism
Zinc(Zn)
Formation of collagen.
component of insulin, andmany enzymes.Eggsea foodmil
Zinc is second to iron in the amounts present inthe body.
It is located in eyes , reproductive organs, liver,
Hatem Alsrour -King Saud

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