some form of gambling being permitted in nearly
every State and by many Indian tribes.
(2) The demarcation between games of chance
and games of skill is not always clearly drawn, and
the treatment and definition of ‘‘games of skill’’ has
varied from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
(3) Millions of people in the United States
enjoy competing with other players in poker, chess,
bridge, mah-jong, backgammon, and similar games
where the outcome turns predominantly on the skill
of the participants. While each of these games con-
tains an element of chance, over any substantial in-
terval, a player’s ultimate success is determined by
that player’s relative level of skill.
(4) Poker, in particular, enjoys a long tradition
in the United States. Poker is part of the cultural
and recreational fabric of the United States and has
been since the founding days of the United States.
United States poker aficionados have included presi-
dents, judges, and statesmen throughout the history
of the United States.
(5) Since the development of the Internet, on-
line sites offering Internet gambling and similar
games have raised numerous policy, consumer pro-
tection, and enforcement concerns for the Federal
August 3, 2009 (12:42 p.m.)