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Biology, Chapter Fourteen, Notes

Biology, Chapter Fourteen, Notes

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UNIT FOUR: EVOLUTION(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)1
Chapter Fourteen (Evolution)Chapter Fourteen (Evolution)Chapter Fourteen (Evolution)Chapter Fourteen (Evolution)
SECTIONSECTIONSECTIONSECTION ONE: BIOGENESISONE: BIOGENESISONE: BIOGENESISONE: BIOGENESISThe principle of biogenesisbiogenesisbiogenesisbiogenesis states that all living things come from other livingthings. Even though this seems like common sense to people today, prior to the 17 
th
 century, it was widely thought that living things could arise from nonliving things in aprocess called spontaneous generationspontaneous generationspontaneous generationspontaneous generation.REDI’S EXPERIMENT
 
The Italian scientist Francesco Redi noticed and described thedevelopmental forms of flies in the middle of the 17 
th
century. Healso observed that maggots appeared where adult flies hadpreviously landed. These observations led him to question thecommonly held belief that flies emerge from rotting meat.He conducted an experiment to see whether meat kept away from adult flies would remain free of maggots. His experimentalgroup consisted of netting-covered jars that contained meat. The control groupconsisted of uncovered jars of meat. After a few days, maggots were living in meat inthe open jars, but the net-covered jars remained free of maggots, since adult fliescould not land on the meat. His experiment showed that flies come only from eggslaid by other flies. When his hypothesis was confirmed, this was important proof against the hypothesis of spontaneous generation.SPALLANZANI’S EXPERIMENTScientists during the 1700s had just begun to observe the microscopic worldusing a microscope. They discovered that microorganisms are widespread, andconcluded that the microorganisms arise spontaneously from a “vital force” in the air.Lazzaro Spallanzani designed an experiment to test this hypothesis. Hethought that microorganisms formed from other microorganisms, not from the air. Heknew that microorganisms grew easily in food, such as broth. He reasoned that boilingbroth in flask would kill all the microorganisms in thebroth and flask.For his experimental group, he boiled freshbroth until the flasks filled with steam, then sealingthe flask. The control group flasks were left open. Thebroth in the sealed in the flask remained clear of microorganisms, while the broth in the open flasksbecame contaminated with microorganisms.
 
UNIT FOUR: EVOLUTION(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)2Spallanzani concluded that the boiled broth only became contaminated whenmicroorganisms from the air entered the flask. His opponents disagreed, saying thatSpallanzani destroyed the “vital force” in the flasks by heating them too long. Airlacking the “vital force,” supposedly could not generate life.PASTEUR’S EXPERIMENTThe Paris Academy of Science offered aprize to anyone who could clear up the issue of spontaneous generation in the mid-1800s.French scientist Louis Pasteur was the winnerof the prize; his experiment disproved thehypothesis of spontaneous generation.Pasteur made a curved-neck flask thatallowed the air inside the flask to mix with airoutside of the flask. The curve in the neck of the flask prevented microorganisms fromentering the body of the flask. Broth boiledinside the experimental curve-necked flasksremained clear for up to a year. However, whenPasteur broke off the curved necks, the brothbecame cloudy with microorganisms within a day.Pasteur’s experiment prompted the principle of biogenesis to become acornerstone of biology, as those who had previously believed in spontaneousgeneration of microorganisms gave up.
 
SECTIONSECTIONSECTIONSECTION 1111 REVIEWREVIEWREVIEWREVIEW1.1.1.1. What does the term
spontaneous generation 
mean?2.2.2.2. Explain how Redi’s experiment disproved the hypothesis that flies formed in food byspontaneous generation.3.3.3.3. What caused people to think the air contained a “vital force that produced living organisms?4.4.4.4. Describe the argument that Spallanzani’s experiment failed to disprove the occurrence of spontaneous generation. Explain how Pasteur’s experiment addressed these concerns.CRITICAL THINKING5555.... Spallanzani and Pasteur both used a technique that is now widely used to preserve food.What was this technique?6666.... What would have happened if Pasteur had tipped one of his flasks so that the broth in the flask had come into contact with the curve of the neck?77.... If spontaneous generation does not occur and the principle of biogenesis is true, whatscientific question remains?
 
UNIT FOUR: EVOLUTION(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)3SECTION TWO: EARTH’S HISTORYSECTION TWO: EARTH’S HISTORYSECTION TWO: EARTH’S HISTORYSECTION TWO: EARTH’S HISTORYTHE FORMATION OF EARTHEvidence from computer models of the sun suggests that about 5 billion yearsago, our solar system was a mass of gas and dust. Over time, most of this materialwas pulled together by gravity, forming the Sun.Earth’s AgeThe estimated age of Earth is about 700,000 timesas long as the period of recorded history: more than 400billion years old. By exploring Earth’s surface and examiningits layers, scientists have been able to establish a pictureof Earth’s geologic history. Early estimates of Earth’s agewere made from studying layers of sedimentary rocks in thecrust. The age of Earth could not be estimated accuratelyuntil the middle of the twentieth century, when modernmethods of dating the age of materials were developed.Radiometric DatingOne of the methods of establishing the age of a material is radiometric datingradiometric datingradiometric datingradiometric dating.The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus. All atomsof an element have the same atomic number, but their number of neutrons can vary.Atoms of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.isotopes.isotopes.isotopes.The mass numbermass numbermass numbermass number of an isotope is the total number of protons and neutrons inth
 
e nucleus. The mass number of the most common carbon isotope is 12. Isotopesare designated by their chemical name followed by their mass number.

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