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Table Of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1. Problem Statement
1.2. Thesis Outline
2. LTE Long Term Evolution
2.1. Evolution before LTE
2.2. Introduction to LTE
2.3. LTE System Performance
2.4. LTE System Architecture
Figure 1. LTE Radio Access Network Architecture [3]
Figure 2. LTE/SAE Architecture [4]
2.5. LTE Multiple Access Technologies
2.5.1. OFDMA in Downlink
Figure 3. OFDM Subcarrier Spectrum [5]
Figure 4. OFDM Symbol Structure with Cyclic Prefix [6]
Table 1. Physical Layer Parameters for Different Bandwidth [4]
2.5.2. SC-FDMA in Uplink
Figure 6. SC-FDMA Transmitter and Receiver Diagram [4]
3.2. The Need for Femtocells
3.3. Industry Activity
3.4. Femtocell Architecture
Figure 9. Simplified diagram of LTE femtocell network architecture
Figure 10. LTE Femtocells without HeNB Gateway [15]
Figure 11. GW aggregates both the control plane and the user plane traffic [15]
3.5. Interference
3.5.1. Co-layer interference
3.5.2. Cross-layer interference
Figure 12. Inter macrocell-femtocell and Inter femtocell interference
Figure 13. (a) Cross-layer Interference (b) Co-layer interference
3.6. Spectrum Allocation
3.6.1. Orthogonal Channel Assignment
3.6.2. Co-channel Assignment
4. CoMP Coordinated MultiPoint Transmission
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Background
Figure 14. Coordinated Multipoint Transmission in Downlink [20]
4.3. The CoMP Architecture
4.3.1. Centralized Architecture
4.3.2. Distributed Architecture
4.4. CoMP Schemes
4.4.1. CoMP Schemes in the Downlink
Figure 15. Coordinated Scheduling / Beamforming Scheme [23]
Figure 16. System model of two interfered users [24]
4.4.2. CoMP Schemes in the Uplink
5. System Simulator
5.1. Problem Foundation
5.2. Simulator Overview
Figure 19. The macrocell base station layout
Figure 20. HeNB an UE layout in a block
Table 2. Macrocell system assumptions
Table 3. HeNB system assumptions
5.3. Antenna Pattern
Figure 21. Horizontal Antenna Pattern Model
5.4. Channel Model
5.4.1. Path Loss
5.4.2. Wall Attenuation
5.4.3. Shadowing Model
5.4.4. Fast Fading Model
5.5. Scheduling
5.6. Throughput
5.7. The Description of the Algorithm for Coordination
Figure 23. (a) PRBs' effect on signal power (b) PRBs' effect on interference
6. System Performance Analysis
6.1. Assessment Methodology
6.2. Simulation Results
Table 4. Parameter sets used in the study
6.2.1. Impact of FBS Penetration Rate
6.2.2. Performance Evaluation for SINR Threshold Levels
Figure 27. Average Number of Assisting BSs vs. SINR Threshold levels
Figure 28. CDF of throughput for SINR threshold comparison for all users
Figure 29. CDF of throughput for SINR threshold comparison for the worst user
6.2.3. Comparison of CDF under different SINR thresholds and FBS
Figure 30. CDF of throughput for SINR threshold – FBS rate combinations
6.2.4. Performance of the Users in the Femtocell Network
6.2.5. Performance of the Worst Users in the Femtocell Network
6.2.6. Connectivity Performance
Figure 33. Connectivity concern of the users in the system
6.2.7. Capacity Performance
Figure 34. Capacity concern of the users in the system
7. Conclusion
Future Work
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Published by: nagaraj_nn605 on Nov 07, 2013
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