Document A: Battle of the Yarmuk
(Excerpted from Original)
A description of the battle.
Heraclius gathered large bodies of Greeks, Syrians, Mesopotamians and rmenians numbering about !"","""# $his army he put under the command of one of his choice men and sent as a %anguard &abalah ibn'al'iham al'Ghassani at the bead of the naturalied rabs *musta+ribah of Syria of the tribes of -akhm, &udham and others, resol%ing to fight the Moslems so that be might either .in or .ithdra. to the land of the Greeks and li%e in /onstantinople# $he Muslims gathered together and the Greek army marched against them# $he battle they fought at al'0armuk .as of the fiercest and bloodiest kind# l'0armuk *Hieromax is a ri%er# 1n this battle !2,""" Moslems took part# $he Greeks and their follo.ers in this battle tied themsel%es to each other by chains, so that no one might set his hope on flight# 3y llah+s help, some 4",""" of them .ere put to death, and their remnants took to flight, reaching as far as 5alestine, ntioch, leppo, Mesopotamia and rmenia# 1n the battle of al'0armuk certain Moslem .omen took part and fought %iolently# mong them .as Hind, daughter of +6tbah and mother of Mu+a.i%ah ibn'abi'Sufyan, .ho repeatedly exclaimed, /ut the arms of these +uncircumcised+, .ith your s.ords7 Her husband abu'Suf%an had come to Syria as a %olunteer desiring to see his sons, and so he brought his .ife .ith him# He then returned to al'Madinah .here he died, year 89, at the age of ::# Others say he died in Syria# ;hen the ne.s of his death .as carried to his daughter, umm'Habibah, she .aited until the third day on .hich she ordered some yello. paint and co%ered .ith it her arms and face sa%ing, 1 .ould not ha%e done that, had 1 not heard the 5rophet say, + .oman should not be in mourning for more than three days o%er anyone except her husband#+ 1t is stated that she did like.ise .hen she recei%ed the ne.s of her brother 0aid+s death# 3ut llah kno.s best#*# # #
The story of Jabalali
# &abalah ibn'al'ibam sided .ith the nsar saying, 0e are our brethren and the sons of our fathers, and professed 1slam# fter the arri%al of +6mar ibn'al'<hattab in S%ria, year 94, &abalah had a dispute .ith one of the Muainah and knocked out his e%e# +6mar ordered that he be punished, upon .hich &abalah said, 1s his eye like mine= >e%er, by llah, shall 1 abide in a to.n .here 1 am under authority# He then apostatied and .ent to the land of the Greeks# $his &abalah .as the king of Ghassan and the successor of al'Harith ibn'abi'Shimr# ccording to another report, .hen &abalah came to +6mar ibn'al'<hattb, he .as still a /hristian# +6mar asked him to accept 1slam and pay sadakah *a Muslim alms tax but he refused sa%ing, 1 shall keep my faith and pay sadakah# +6mar+s ans.er .as, 1f thou keepest thy faith, thou least to pay poll'tax# $he man refused, and +6mar added, ;e ha%e only three alternati%es for thee? 1slam tax or going .hither thou .illest#