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Expansion of the Islamic Empire Original Documents

Expansion of the Islamic Empire Original Documents

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Published by: StanfordSheg on Nov 07, 2013
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02/20/2014

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Document A: Battle of the Yarmuk
(Excerpted from Original)
 A description of the battle.
 Heraclius gathered large bodies of Greeks, Syrians, Mesopotamians and rmenians numbering about !"","""# $his army he put under the command of one of his choice men and sent as a %anguard &abalah ibn'al'iham al'Ghassani at the bead of the naturalied rabs *musta+ribah of Syria of the tribes of -akhm, &udham and others, resol%ing to fight the Moslems so that be might either .in or .ithdra. to the land of the Greeks and li%e in /onstantinople# $he Muslims gathered together and the Greek army marched against them# $he battle they fought at al'0armuk .as of the fiercest and bloodiest kind# l'0armuk *Hieromax is a ri%er# 1n this battle !2,""" Moslems took part# $he Greeks and their follo.ers in this battle tied themsel%es to each other by chains, so that no one might set his hope on flight# 3y  llah+s help, some 4",""" of them .ere put to death, and their remnants took to flight, reaching as far as 5alestine, ntioch, leppo, Mesopotamia and rmenia# 1n the battle of al'0armuk certain Moslem .omen took part and fought %iolently# mong them .as Hind, daughter of +6tbah and mother of Mu+a.i%ah ibn'abi'Sufyan, .ho repeatedly exclaimed, /ut the arms of these +uncircumcised+, .ith your s.ords7 Her husband abu'Suf%an had come to Syria as a %olunteer desiring to see his sons, and so he brought his .ife .ith him# He then returned to al'Madinah .here he died, year 89, at the age of ::# Others say he died in Syria# ;hen the ne.s of his death .as carried to his daughter, umm'Habibah, she .aited until the third day on .hich she ordered some yello. paint and co%ered .ith it her arms and face sa%ing, 1 .ould not ha%e done that, had 1 not heard the 5rophet say, + .oman should not be in mourning for more than three days o%er anyone except her husband#+ 1t is stated that she did like.ise .hen she recei%ed the ne.s of her brother 0aid+s death# 3ut llah kno.s best#*# # #
The story of Jabalali 
# &abalah ibn'al'ibam sided .ith the nsar saying, 0e are our brethren and the sons of our fathers, and professed 1slam# fter the arri%al of +6mar ibn'al'<hattab in S%ria, year 94, &abalah had a dispute .ith one of the Muainah and knocked out his e%e# +6mar ordered that he be punished, upon .hich &abalah said, 1s his eye like mine= >e%er, by llah, shall 1 abide in a to.n .here 1 am under authority# He then apostatied and .ent to the land of the Greeks# $his &abalah .as the king of Ghassan and the successor of al'Harith ibn'abi'Shimr# ccording to another report, .hen &abalah came to +6mar ibn'al'<hattb, he .as still a /hristian# +6mar asked him to accept 1slam and pay sadakah *a Muslim alms tax but he refused sa%ing, 1 shall keep my faith and pay sadakah# +6mar+s ans.er .as, 1f thou keepest thy faith, thou least to pay poll'tax# $he man refused, and +6mar added, ;e ha%e only three alternati%es for thee? 1slam tax or going .hither thou .illest#
 
 ccordingly, &abalah left .ith 8",""" men to the land of the Greeks *sia Minor# +6badah ibn'as'Samit gently repro%ed +6mar saying, 1f thou hadst accepted sadakah from him and treated him in a friendly .ay, he .ould ha%e become Moslem#1n the year !9, +6mar directed +-$mair ibn'Sa+d al'nsri at the head of a great army against the land of the Greeks, and put him in command of the summer expedition .hich .as the first of its kind# +6mar instructed him to treat &abalah ibn'al'iham %ery, kindly, and to try and appeal to him through the blood relationship bet.een them, +so that be should come back to the land of the Moslems .ith the understanding that he .ould keep his o.n faith and pay the amount of sadakah lie had agreed to pay# +6mair marched until he came to the land of +the +Greeks and proposed to &abalah .hat he .as ordered by +6mar to propose@ but &abalah refused the offer and insisted on staying in the land of the Greeks# +6mar then came into a place called al'Himar'a %alley'' .hich he destroyed putting its inhabitants to the s.ord# Hence the pro%erb, 1n a more ruined state than the hollo. of Himar#
Christians and Jews prefer Moslem rule
# bu'Hafs ad'Aimashki from Sa+id ibn'+bd'al'+i? ';hen Heraclius massed his troops against the Moslems and the Moslems heard that they .ere coming to meet them at al'0armuk, the Moslems refunded to the inhabitants of Hims the karaB *tribute they had taken from them saying, ;e are too busy to support and protect you# $ake care of yoursel%es# 3ut the people of Hims replied, ;e like your rule and Bustice far better than the state of oppression and tyranny in .hich .e .ere# $he army of Heraclius .e shall indeed, .ith your +amil+s+ help, repulse from the city# $he &e.s rose and said, ;e s.ear by the $orah, no go%ernor of Heraclius shall enter the city of Hims unless .e are first %anCuished and exhausted7 Saying this, they closed the gates of the city and guarded them# $he inhabitants of the other cities ' /hristian and &e. ' that had capitulated to the Moslems, did the same, saying, 1f Heraclius and his follo.ers .in o%er the Moslems .e .ould return to our pre%ious condition, other.ise .e shall retain our present state so long as numbers are .ith the Moslems# ;hen by llah+s help the unbelie%ers .ere defeated and the Moslems .on, they opened the gates of their cities, .ent out .ith the singers and music players .ho began to play, and paid the kharaB#
Source
: Al-Biladuri, “The Battle of the armu! "#$#% and After,& written in the '((s C).
 
Document B: The Treaty of Tudmir
1n the name of God, the merciful and compassionate#$his is a document *granted by +bd al'+i ibn Musa ibn >usair to $udmir, son of Ghabdush, establishing a treaty of peace and the promise and protection of God and his 5rophet (may God bless him and grant him peace)# ;e *+bd al'+i .ill not set special conditions for him or for any among his men, nor harass him, nor remo%e him from po.er# His follo.ers .ill not be killed or taken prisoner, nor .ill they be separated from their .omen and children# $hey .ill not be coerced in matters of religion, their churches .ill not be burned, nor .ill sacred obBects be taken from the realm, *so long as he *$udmir remains sincere and fulfills the *follo.ing conditions that .e ha%e set for him# He has reached a settlement concerning se%en to.ns? Orihuela, Dalentilla,  licante, Mula, 3igastro, Ello, and -orca# He .ill not gi%e shelter to fugiti%es, nor to our enemies# He and *each of his men shall *also pay one dinar e%ery year, together .ith four measures of .heat, four measures of barley, four liCuid measures of concentrated fruit Buice, four liCuid measures of %inegar, four of honey, and four of oli%e oil# Sla%es much each pay half of this amount#
Source:
 The Treaty of Tudmir, *+$ C).

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