Internal Conflict and Terrorism in Southeast Asia:Regional Responses and U.S. LeadershipCarlyle A. Thayer
[Paper to panel on Internal Conflict and Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Assessing the Effectiveness of Regional Responses and U.S. Leadership, 46
International Studies Association Annual Convention, HiltonHawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., March 1-5, 2005]
In the aftermath of terrorist bombings on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001,U.S. President George Bush called for a global war on terrorism. The United Nations Security Councilquickly rallied behind the U.S. and passed a resolution binding the UN’s members to prevent such actsfrom occurring again. In Southeast Asia, political leaders uniformly condemned the terrorist attacks on theUnited States and offered varying measures of support. This paper provides an overview of regionalresponses to the emergence of internationally networked terrorism and U.S. efforts to provide leadership inthe war on terrorism. It concludes by offering an assessment of successes and shortcomings of the variousapproaches adopted along three dimensions: preferences, capacity and leadership.
In the aftermath of terrorist attacks on the United States on 11
September 2001(hereafter (9-11), the United Nations Security Council, acting under the provisions of Chapter VII of its Charter, adopted Resolution 1373 on September 28, 2001. Thisresolution reaffirmed the Security Council’s unequivocal condemnation of the 9-11terrorist attacks and
that all States shall:(a) Prevent and suppress the financing of terrorist acts;(b) Criminalize the willful provision or collection, by any means, directly or indirectly, of fundsby their nationals or in their territories with the intention that the funds should be used, or in the knowledgethat they are to be used, in order to carry out terrorist acts;(c) Freeze without delay funds and other financial assets or economic resources of persons whocommit, or attempt to commit, terrorist acts or participate in or facilitate the commission of terrorist acts; of entities owned or controlled directly or indirectly by such persons; and of persons and entities acting onbehalf of, or at the direction of such persons and entities, including funds derived or generated fromproperty owned or controlled directly or indirectly by such persons and associated persons and entities;(d) Prohibit their nationals or any persons and entities within their territories from making anyfunds, financial assets or economic resources or financial or other related services available, directly orindirectly, for the benefit of persons who commit or attempt to commit or facilitate or participate in thecommission of terrorist acts, of entities owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such persons and of persons and entities acting on behalf of or at the direction of such persons;2.
that all States shall:(a) Refrain from providing any form of support, active or passive, to entities or persons involvedin terrorist acts, including by suppressing recruitment of members of terrorist groups and eliminating thesupply of weapons to terrorists;
C. V. Starr Distinguished Visiting Professor, Southeast Asia Program, School of Advanced InternationalStudies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D.C. on leave as Director, UNSW Defence StudiesForum, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University College, The University of New SouthWales at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra.