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Cherokee Grammar Negative "Don't" Commands

Cherokee Grammar Negative "Don't" Commands

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Published by Wyman Kirk
Brief grammatical description on the process for deriving negative commands in Cherokee ("Don't" Command Forms).
Brief grammatical description on the process for deriving negative commands in Cherokee ("Don't" Command Forms).

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Published by: Wyman Kirk on Nov 08, 2013
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07/11/2014

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VERB Present Command Future Command
Syllabary
“Don‟t” Form
 
“Don‟t” Form 1
 
“Don‟t” Form 2
 
Syllabary
Write! hohwelvga
hohwelanv‟i
 
ᎰᏪᎸᎦ
 
ᎰᏪᎳᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t write!
 hesdi
 johwelanv‟i
 hesdi ji-hohwelani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏪᎳᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎰᏪᎳᏂ
 
Learn! hadehloqwa
hadehloqwa‟v‟i
 
ᎭᏕᏠᏆ
 
ᎭᏕᏠᏆᎥᎢ
 
Don‟t learn!
 hesdi
 jadehloqwa‟v‟i
 hesdi ji-
hadehloqwa‟i
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏕᏠᏆᎥᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏕᏠᏆᎢ
 
Look around! hiktenaga
hiktenolv‟i
 
ᎯᎦᏖᎾᎦ
 
ᎯᎦᏖᏃᎸᎢ
 
Don‟t look around!
 hesdi
 jaktenolv‟i
 hesdi ji-hiktenoli
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᎦᏖᏃᎸᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᎦᏖᏃᎵ
 
Jump! tahltaduga
tahltadinvsv‟i
 
ᏔᎵᏔᏚᎦ
 
ᏔᎵᏔᏗᏅᏒᎢ
 
Don‟t jump!
 hesdi
dijahltadinvsv‟i
 hesdi ji-dehahltadinvsi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏗᏣᎵᏔᏗᏅᏒᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᏕᎭᎵᏔᏗᏅᏏ
 
Say it! hniwi
hniwesv‟i
 
ᏂᏫ
 
ᏂᏪᏒᎢ
 
Don‟t say it!
 hesdi
nijawesv‟i
 hesdi ji-hiwesi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏂᏣᏪᏒᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏪᏏ
 
Tell! hihnohvla
hihnohehlv‟i
 
ᎯᏃᎲᎳ
 
ᎯᏃᎮᏢᎢ
 
Don‟t tell!
 hesdi
 jahnohehlv‟i
 hesdi ji-hihnohehli
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏃᎮᏢᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏃᎮᏟ
 
Finish! hisgwada
hisgwadv‟i
 
ᎯᏍᏆᏓ
 
ᎯᏍᏆᏛᎢ
 
Don‟t finish!
 hesdi
 jasgwadv‟i
 hesdi ji-hisgwadi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏍᏆᏛᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏍᏆᏗ
 
Try! hanehlda
hanehltanv‟i
 
ᎭᏁᎵᏓ
 
ᎭᏁᎵᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t try!
 hesdi
 janehltanv‟i
 hesdi ji-hanehltani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏁᎵᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏁᎵᏔᏂ
 
Bathe! hadawoja
hadawo‟v‟i
 
ᎭᏓᏬᏣ
 
ᎭᏓᏬᎥᎢ
 
Don‟t bathe!
 hesdi
 jadawo‟v‟i
 hesdi ji-
hadawo‟i
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏓᏬᎥᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏓᏬᎢ
 
Open it!
hisdu‟i
 
hisdu‟isv‟i
 
ᎯᏍᏚᎢ
 
ᎯᏍᏚᎢᏒᎢ
 
Don‟t open it!
 
hesdi jasdu‟isv‟i
 hesdi ji-
hisdu‟isi
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏍᏚᎢᏒᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏍᏚᎢᏏ
 
Close it! hisduhvga
hisduhnv‟i
 
ᎯᏍᏚᎲᎦ
 
ᎯᏍᏚᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t close it!
 
hesdi jasduhnv‟i
 hesdi ji-hisduhni
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏍᏚᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏍᏚᏂ
 
Leave! hahnigi
hahnigisv‟i
 
ᎭᏂᎩ
 
ᎭᏂᎩᏒᎢ
 
Don‟t leave!
 
hesdi jahnigisv‟i
 hesdi ji-hahnigisi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏂᎩᏒᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏂᎩᏏ
 
Make it! hohlvna
hohlvhnv‟i
 
ᎰᏢᎾ
 
ᎰᏢᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t make it!
 
hesdi johlvhnv‟i
 hesdi ji-hohlvni
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏢᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎰᏢᏂ
 
Cook (meal)! hadasdayvhvga
hadasdayvhnv‟i
 
ᎭᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᎦ
 
ᎭᏓᏍᏓᏴᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t cook (meal)!
 
hesdi jadasdayvhnv‟i
 hesdi ji-hadasdayvhni
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏓᏍᏓᏴᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏓᏍᏓᏴᏂ
 
 
Use it! hvhda
hvhtanv‟i
 
ᎲᏓ
 
ᎲᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t use it!
 hesdi
 jvhtanv‟i
 hesdi ji-hvhtani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏨᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎲᏔᏂ
 
Drive!
hihi‟luga
 
hihi‟linolv‟i
 
ᎯᎯᎷᎦ
 
ᎯᎯᎵᏃᎸᎢ
 
Don‟t drive!
 
hesdi jahi‟linolv‟i
 hesdi ji-
hihi‟linoli
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᎯᎵᏃᎸᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᎯᎵᏃᎵ
 
Ride! hakilvda
hakilvtanv‟i
 
ᎭᎩᎸᏓ
 
ᎭᎩᎸᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t ride!
 
hesdi jakilvtanv‟i
 hesdi ji-hakilvtani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᎩᎸᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᎩᎸᏔᏂ
 
Sing! tihnogi
dehihnogisv‟i
 
ᏘᏃᎩ
 
ᏎᎯᏃᎩᏒᎢ
 
Don‟t sing!
 
hesdi dijahnogisv‟i
 hesdi ji-dehihnogisi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏗᏣᏃᎩᏒᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᏕᎯᏃᎩᏏ
 
Shop! hadananesvhvga
hadananesvhnv‟i
 
ᎭᏓᎾᎡᏒᎲᎦ
 
ᎭᏓᎾᏁᏒᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t shop!
 
hesdi jadananesvhnv‟i
 hesdi ji-hadananesvhni
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏓᎾᏁᏒᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏓᎾᏁᏒᏂ
 
Run! hadanawsda
hadanawstanv‟i
 
ᎭᏓᎾᏫᏍᏓ
 
ᎭᏓᎾᏫᏍᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t run!
 
hesdi jadanawstanv‟i
 hesdi ji-hadanawstani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏓᎾᏫᏍᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏓᎾᏫᏍᏔᏂ
 
Help! halsdela
halsdelvhv‟i
 
ᎭᎵᏍᏕᎳ
 
ᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲᎢ
 
Don‟t help!
 
hesdi jalsdelvhv‟i
 hesdi ji-halsdelvhi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᎵᏍᏕᎸᎲᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᎵᏍᏕᎸᎯ
 
Help (him)! hisdela
hisdelvhv‟i
 
ᎯᏍᏕᎳ
 
ᎯᏍᏕᎸᎲᎢ
 
Don‟t help (him)!
 
hesdi jasdelvhv‟i
 hesdi ji-hisdelvhi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏍᏕᎸᎲᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏍᏕᎸᎯ
 
Laugh!  jayetsa
 jayetsv‟i
 
ᏣᏰᏣ
 
ᏣᏰᏨᎢ
 
Don‟t laugh!
 
hesdi jayetsv‟i
 hesdi ji-jayetsi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏰᏨᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᏣᏰᏥ
 
Pay! hakwiya
hakwiyvhv‟i
 
ᎭᏈᏯ
 
ᎭᏈᏴᎲᎢ
 
Don‟t pay!
 
hesdi jakwiyvhv‟i
 hesdi ji-hakwiyvhi
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏈᏴᎲᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᏈᏴᎯ
 
Pay (him)! hiyagwiyvsi
hikwiyv‟elv‟i
 
ᎯᏯᏈᏴᏏ
 
ᎯᏈᏴᎡᎸᎢ
 
Don‟t pay (him)!
 
hesdi jakwiyv‟elv‟i
 hesdi ji-
hikwiyv‟eli
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᏈᏴᎡᎸᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎯᏈᏴᎡᎵ
 
Play (with it)! tanehlda
tanehltanv‟i
 
ᏔᏁᎵᏓ
 
ᏔᏁᎵᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t play with that!
 
hesdi dijanehltanv‟i
 hesdi ji-dehanehltani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏗᏣᏁᎵᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᏕᎭᏁᎵᏔᏂ
 
Stop! halehwisda
halehwistanv‟i
 
ᎭᎴᏫᏍᏓ
 
ᎭᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t stop!
 
hesdi jalehwistanv‟i
 hesdi ji-halehwistani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᎴᏫᏍᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᎴᏫᏍᏔᏂ
 
Stop (it)! halehwisdohda
halehwisdohtanv‟i
 
ᎭᎴᏫᏍᏙᏓ
 
ᎭᎴᏫᏍᏙᏔᏅᎢ
 
Don‟t stop (it)!
 
hesdi jalehwisdohtanv‟i
 hesdi ji-halehwisdohtani
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏣᎴᏫᏍᏙᏔᏅᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᎭᎴᏫᏍᏙᏔᏂ
 
Talk (to him)! tahlinohvla
tahlinohehlv‟i
 
ᏔᏟᏃᎲᎳ
 
ᏔᏟᏃᎮᏢᎢ
 
Don‟t talk (to him)!
 
hesdi dijahlinohehlv‟i
 hesdi ji-dehahlinohehli
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏗᏣᏟᏃᎮᏢᎢ
 
ᎮᏍᏗ ᏥᏕᎭᏟᏃᎮᏟ
 
 
 
*This chart shows the forms for saying “don‟t” as a command in Cherokee. Columns one, two, and three give the verbs in their 
 command form. Column One is the verb in English, Column Two has the verbs in Cherokee phonetics, and Column Three has them
in the Syllabary. Columns four through six give the verb in the “don‟t” form. Column Four has the “don‟t” verb in English,
Column Five in English phonetics, and Column Six in the Syllabary.  Note that Column One
(the “command” verb in English) has only one form, but Columns Two and Three (the “command” verb in
Cherokee) have two verbs given in each box. This is because you have two different command forms in Cherokee, one for a
command “now” and one for a command in the future. So it is different in Cherokee to say “go” now versus “go” later. The form on
top in the box is the present command form, and the form on bottom is the future command form. In all verbs, the future command form will end in /-
v‟i/.
 For
Columns five and six, you will also notice that there are two verb forms for the “don‟t” commands in Cherokee. The “don‟t” commands in Cherokee mean the SAME thing; the only difference is one of choice. Saying “don‟t” as a command in Cherokee does
 not ma
tter if it is “now” or in the future. Cherokee just has two equal, but different, ways you can say “don‟t” with verbs.
 
 Now let‟s look at making these two forms. Again, there are two ways you can express the concept of “don‟t” in Cherokee, and b
oth ways w
ork just as well so you can use whichever one you want. Here‟s what you do:
 Method 1:
Use the verb form that is the “Remote Past.” If you aren‟t sure what form this is, just find the one that would go in a stat
ement
like “You did it yesterday” with the verb in the place of “did.” So if your verb is “buy” then make the sentence “You bought it yesterday.” For us here in Oklahoma, that sentence would be /Svhi jigesv‟i jahwasv‟i/ „Yesterday it was
you
 bought it.” Some
speakers will make the form /ji-jahwa
sv‟i/ as their verb. That beginning /ji
-/ you see is a marker saying this action took place at a
specific time in the past. I mention it because if you ask a speaker how to say “You <VERB> yesterday” then you will probabl
y get the /ji-/ on the verb. For
what we‟re doing here, just take that off of the verb. We want what we call the “base form” which
only has the verb without anything on it.
So now we have /jahwasv‟i/. If the verb has the pronoun marker /ja
-/ or /j-
/ meaning “You” (to one person), then
 all you have to do is put /hesdi/ or /hlesdi/ before it.
/hesdi jahwasv‟i/ „Don‟t buy it!‟
 Method 2: But there is another way you can make this form, but it is more complicated. You are using basically the same form, but there are changes you need to make to the form. This is harder because you need to know your two basic verb forms, Set A or Set B. If
the verb is Set B, this is a little easier. If it‟s Set A, it‟s not as easy, but it‟s not hard if you understand what you need to do. Let‟s
do this for Set B first and then Set A next.

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