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motivasi

motivasi

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Published by: nina_acaz on Aug 08, 2009
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07/15/2013

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managers say definitely no. If American workers still believe in the value and importanceof hard work, why aren't they willing to give it? Ask the question--"What's beingrewarded?" --and you'll find the answer.Workers withhold their best effort when they see little or no connection between whatthey do and how they are rewarded. In order to be motivated workers must have a reasonfor doing what they are doing (motive), and the reason must be their own. They must also be actively involved in the doing (action). If either one of these aspects is lacking you donot have motivation.Many managers make the mistake of thinking that their main job is to get workers to dosomething. They spend a great deal of their time and energy thinking up ways to getworkers to do what they want them to do. They fail to realize that the motivation to dosomething must come from within the worker. Workers do what they do for four reasons:they are inwardly prodded, inwardly lured, outwardly prodded, outwardly lured.Those things that inwardly prod workers to do what they do are called drives. A drive isan inner urge or feeling that impels workers to do something.Those things that inwardly lure workers to do what they do are called needs. A need is aninner vacuum which workers must fill so they are satisfied.If managers want to get workers to do something they can outwardly force on subtlythreaten them with reprimands pay-cuts, termination, transfers, or demotions. This is thenegative physical or psychological approach, (KITA) "kick in the lower back." It hasdistinct disadvantages. If you prod people to do certain things, the bruises of your  physical forcing shows outwardly. If you prod people too much, they may push you back.If you psychologically hurt someone, you will leave lasting scars of resentment and paranoia.On the other hand, managers can get workers to do something by luring them with theenticements of future rewards and bribes based on their needs and wants. This is theclassic carrot and stick approach. Dangle the carrot in front of the worker and the worker will move to where you want them to be. The problem with this approach is one of escalating demands.By now it should be obvious that any actions that are created in workers by external powers, whether they be positive or negative, are going to lead workers only to do whatthose powers want them to do. It is only when workers are acting in concert with their own drives, needs and wants that the manager is going to retain motivated workers. The primary task of managers is to know their workers personally. This implies, of course,that managers must ascertain what workers want and need from their jobs. Then theymust find ways of designing logical couplings between the wants of workers and the aimsof the organization.
 
To the extent that workers can satisfy their needs as they assist the organization toaccomplish its goals, the manager will have an effective department and satisfied,workers. When workers do not see a connection between the fulfillment of their ownneeds and the accomplishment of the goals of the organization, the manager must resortto force threats or bribery. Motivated workers move and act in very different ways fromthose who are functioning on external stimuli alone because the motive is located insideeach worker. In the end, managers will not only get what they reward but also what theydeserve.
Beberapa orang pakar di dalam motivasi pekerja telah memajukan teori-teorimotivasi seperti yang dinyatakan di bawah.
1.
Abraham Maslow
Hierarki Keperluan
Di dalam penulisannya yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1943, Abraham Maslowmemajukan cadangannya di bawah tajuk "A Theory of Human Motivation"Mengikut teori tersebut, terdapat lima (5) peringkat keperluan manusia(pekerja).Ia dipercayai boleh meningkatkan motivasi pekerja.Bermula dengan peringkat yang rendah sekali, peringkat berkenaan adalah:
o
Keperluan Fisiologi.
Inilah keperluan asas manusia seperti makanan,tidur dan tempat kediaman.Sekiranya salah satu daripada keperluan ini tidak dipenuhi, ia akanmempengaruhi arah fokus pekerja semasa menjalankan sesuatutugas.
o
Keperluan Keselamatan.
Termasuk di dalam keperluan ini adalahkeselamatan peribadi, keselamatan kewangan, kesihatan dan tidakakan menjadi mangsa penyalahgunaan kuasa.
o
Keperluan Sosial.
Inilah keperluan manusia untuk dicintai dan merasaiperasaan "kekitaan". Semua pekerja perlu merasai bahawa merekadiperlukan dan mempunyai peranan tersendiri di dalam organisasi. Jikadipenuhi, perasaan ketegangan dan tekanan ("stress") di kalanganpekerja dapat dielakkan atau dikurangkan.
o
Keperluan Kehormatan Diri ("Esteem").
Keperluan ini ada kaitandengan keperluan pekerja untuk dihormati dan diberi peluangmenghormati orang lain. Beri mereka tugas yang boleh memberimereka peluang untuk memberi sumbangan. Ini akan meningkatkan"penghormatan diri" (self-esteem.)
o
Keperluan Berkembang Diri.
Keperluan ini berkaitan dengan keperluanuntuk mencapai cita-cita diri sendiri mengikut potensi seseorangmanusia (pekerja).Mengkit Maslow keperluan untuk berkembang diri dapat memberimotivasi yang berkekalan.
 
Termasuk di dalam keperluan ini ialah peluang untuk menggunakankreativiti, kebolehan menyelasaian masalah-masalah dan mengalamiaktiviti yang bermoral.Keperluan dari peringkat kedua hingga peringkat kelima adalahkeperluan "psychological."Tidak mudah untuk merancang mana satu keperluan dijadikan sebagaitumpuan seseorang pekerja. Di samping itu, kesemua keperluan itutidak boleh dipenuhi pada masa yang sama.
2.
Theory XY oleh McGregor 
Adalah dinyatakan bahawa Teori XY yang dikemukakan oleh McGregor kekalsebagai utama di dalam pembangunan organisasi serta budaya organisasi.Teori X merujuk kepada cara mengurus sumber manusia secara"authoritarian" atau secara paksaan.Mengikut teori ini, pekerja di dalam golongan ini tidak suka bekerja. Ia akanmembuat tugas jika hukuman akan menyusul sekiranya ia gagal membuatkerja. Pekerja ini hanya ikut arahan dan akan cari peluang untukmengelakkan kerja.Mengikut Teori Y, pekerja-pekerja mengarahkan diri untuk melakukantugasnya dan mencapai matlamat organisasi. Sistem penggajian dan insentif adalah diwujudkan dengan tujuan mempengaruhi pekerja di dalam kumpulanini.Pekerja-pekerja seperti ini akan cari peluang untuk menyumbang denganlebih banyak lagi. Beri mereka peluang dan juga beri mereka galakan untukmenggunakan kreativiti apabila menyelasaikan masalah.
3.
Teori Dua Faktor oleh Herzberg
Teori Motivasi-Kesihatan Herzberg (atau "Two Factors Theory")memperturunkan faktor-faktor yang dapat memberi "kepuasan kerja" atausebaliknya.Teori ini mempunayai kaitan dengan Teori Motivasi Maslow.Herzberg memberi penekanan kepada langkah-langkah yang dapat memenuhikeperluan di peringkat atasan di dalam Peringkat Keperluan mengikut TeoriMaslow.Keperluan termasuklah keperluan "pencapaian, dikenali, tanggungjawab,kemajuan, dan jenis kerja yang dijalankan."Tetapi Herzberg menambah model motivasi dua faktor (two-factor model).Kepada Herzberg, terdpat dua jenis ciri-ciri kerja yang masing-masing akanmengakibatkan kepuasan kerja atau ketidak-puasan kerja.

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