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Hildegard E. pEPLAU...authobiography

Hildegard E. pEPLAU...authobiography

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Published by: yumiko on Aug 08, 2009
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Hildegard E. Peplau, first published nursing theorist in a century, since Nightingale
Created the nursing middle-range theory of Interpersonal Relations
Helped revolutionize the scholarly work of nurses
Contributor to mental health laws/reform
Hildegard E. Peplau -- born September 1, 1909 in Reading, PA to immigrant parents of Germandecent
Illiterate, work-a-holic father 
Oppressive, perfectionist mother 
Raised in a paternalistic family and a paternalistic society
Though higher education was never discussed at home, Hilda was strong-willed, with motivationand vision to grow beyond traditional women’s roles
She wanted more out of life and knew nursing was one of few career choices for women in her day.
WW I ended in 1918, along with the great flu epidemic the same year 
Industry expansion & bullish stock market
Women first vote 1920
Roaring 20s & Prohibition
It was a man’s world in both business and education 
The autonomous, nursing- controlled Nightingale era schools came to an end – schoolscontrolled by hospitals now and formal book learning was discouraged
Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of free or inexpensive labor 
Exploitation was not uncommon of nurse’s employers, physicians and educational providers
Nursing practice was controlled by medicine(Chinn, 2008)
Peplau pushed forward beating the odds:
Graduate Pottstown, PA Hospital School of Nursing in 1931
BA Psychology: Bennington College, VT 1943
World War II: Army Nurse Corps -- worked in a neuropsychiatric hospital in London,England
MA Psychiatric Nursing: 1947; Ed.D. Nursing Education: 1953, both graduate degreesfrom Teachers’ College, Columbia University
Certification in Psychoanalysis for Teachers: William Alanson White Institute, New YorkCity, 1954
Hilda witnessed injustices in life, being determined to push past them for social justice
First exposure to Interpersonal Theory at Bennington
Attended lectures by Harold Stack Sullivan on Interpersonal Relations
Studied with Frieda Fromm-Reichman and Eric Fromm
She had vision to bring the Sullivanian theory to interactions with her patients – theyneeded:
Humane treatment
Dignity & respect
Healing discussion
…in a time when
there was none to be found…
Teachers’ College: Director of Advanced Program in Psychiatric Nursing
She created nursing curriculum
Included study of nurse-patient interactions through “Process Recordings”
Peplau analyzed interactions of students with patients, taking her own experience into account
Reviewed them for recurring themes
Using clinical data for theory development – empirical evidence Her book, or conceptualframework, was completed by 1948, entitled
Interpersonal Relations in Nursing 
Publishing her book took four additional years because it was groundbreaking for a nurseto contribute this scholarly work without a coauthoring physician
Peplau’s original intent was not theory development per se
She wanted “only to convey to the nursing profession ideas [she] thought were importantto improve practice”
Peplau’s focus was the quality of nurse-patient interactions and nursing education
(O’Toole, 1989; Forchuk, 1993, p. 3)
the patient
the nurse
the interaction between them
CLIENT/PATIENT – person, couple, group, community, deserving of humane care withdignity, privacy, ethics
ENVIRONMENT - Physiological, psychological and social fluidity that may be illness-maintaining or health-promoting
 – Forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in thedirection of creative, constructive, personal, and community living
 – Phenomena that occur between persons
 – The medium of the art of nursing; a maturing force. “The unique blend of ideals, values, integrity, and commitment to the well-being of others…”
NURSING ROLES - to assist client starting as stranger, then technical expert, resourceperson, surrogate, counselor, teacher and others
(Forchuk, 1993; Peterson, 2009)
Two original assumptions:
1) The kind of nurse each person becomes makes a substantial difference in what eachclient will learn as she or he is nursed throughout his or her experience with illness
2) Fostering personality development in the direction of maturity is a function of nursingand nursing education; it requires the use of principles and methods that permit andguide the process of grappling with everyday interpersonal problems or difficulties
Later Peplau added:
3) Nursing can take as its unique focus the reactions of clients to the circumstances of their illnesses or health problems
4) Since illness provides opportunity for learning and growth, nursing can assist clients togain intellectual and interpersonal competencies, beyond those that they have at the

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