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U.S. food import patterns

U.S. food import patterns

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Published by pkedrosky
U.S. food import patterns 1998-2007
U.S. food import patterns 1998-2007

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Published by: pkedrosky on Aug 08, 2009
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United StatesDepartmentof Agriculture
A Report from the Economic Research Service 
Using import data rom the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines patterns o U.S.ood imports or fscal years 1998-2007. Results indicate aster import growth trendsor consumer-ready oods, such as ruit, vegetables, meats, seaood, and processedood products. Although the United States imported most bulk ood commodities andperishable consumer-ready products, such as ruit and vegetables, rom neighboringcountries in the Western Hemisphere, it imported processed oods, spices, and othertropical products rom more global sources, with rising import shares or manycountries in Asia.
U.S. ood imports, U.S. grain imports, U.S. processed ood imports, U.S.ruit and vegetable imports
Nora Brooks,
Anita Regmi,
Alberto Jerardo,
U.S. Food ImportPatterns, 1998-2007
FAU-125August 2009
Approved by USDA’sWorld AgriculturalOutlook Board
Fish and Seafood
Fruits and Nuts
Vegetables andVegetable Products
Grains and Grain Products
Meat and Poultry
Dairy Products
Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa
Sugar and Confectionery
Vegetable Oils
U.S. food imports rose rapidly during fiscal years 1998-2007;consumer-ready products grew fastest
U.S. $ billion
Notes: Includes only food products. Products are classified per USDA Bulk Intermediate and ConsumerOriented groups with fish and seafood added to consumer-ready products. See appendix for description.Source: Compiled by ERS using data from U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau.
Consumer readyIntermediateBulk
U.S. Food Import Patterns, 1998-2007
Economic Research Service/USDA
The authors gratefully acknowledge the input and review comments of Jean Buzby, Ron Trostle, Mark Gehlhar, and Suchada Langley of USDA’sEconomic Research Service (ERS); David Stallings of USDA’s WorldAgricultural Outlook Board; Daniel Whitley of USDA’s Foreign AgriculturalService; and Diane O’berg of the Foreign Trade Division, Census Bureau,U.S. Department of Commerce. Excellent editorial and production assistancewas provided by Linda Hatcher of ERS.
U.S. Food Import Patterns, 1998-2007 / 
Economic Research Service/USDA
Given a mature ood market, which is characteristic o most developedcountries, U.S. ood consumers are increasingly demanding greater variety,quality, and convenience in the ood they consume (Frazão et al., 2008). AsAmericans become wealthier and more ethnically diverse, the American oodbasket refects a growing share o tropical products, spices, and importedgourmet products. Seasonal and climatic actors drive U.S. imports o horti-cultural products, particularly popular ruits and vegetables and other tropicalproducts, such as cocoa and coee.Americans have also become much more health conscious, demanding morenutritious oods. Dietary concerns have changed the emphasis rom red meatto sh, ostered growing interest in resh ruits, vegetables, and unsaturatedats, such as olive oil and canola oil, and sparked new interest in green teas,which contain antioxidants. In addition, cocoa (and dark chocolate) containshigh levels o antioxidants and favonoids, which are linked to improvedcardiovascular health. Green tea and cocoa butter are also used in beautyproducts.However, a growing share o U.S. imports can be attributed to intra-industrytrade, whereby agricultural-processing industries based in the United Statescarry out certain processing steps oshore and import products at dierentlevels o processing rom their subsidiaries in oreign markets (Regmi et al.,2005). Consequently, ood manuacturing operations are oten spread overmany national boundaries to minimize production and distribution costs aswell as to enhance the ability to quickly replenish inventories.While the globalized ood industry oers U.S. consumers a more aord-able array o diverse ood products year round, it also increases access ordeveloping countries, such as China, India, and countries in Central America,which have registered rapid export growth. This report presents a broadanalysis o U.S. ood imports, with a particular ocus on ood products andexporting countries that had rapid export growth. U.S. ood import dataor 1998-2007 were analyzed to identiy imports that grew rapidly and toexamine how the U.S. ood import pattern changed over the decade. Thisanalysis attempts to link changes in the U.S. ood import pattern to (1) theproximity o the source country, (2) ree trade agreements (FTAs), (3) intra-industry trade, and (4) changing consumer preerences.Commodity-level trade data in this report came rom the U.S. Departmento Commerce, Census Bureau. The Census Bureau releases trade data basedon the U.S. Harmonized Tari Schedule (HTS) o 10-digit codes. Whilethis level o detail provides or rigorous analysis o trade patterns, it is toodetailed or the general analysis presented in this report. This report, there-ore, uses the six-digit International Harmonized Commodity Coding andClassication System (HS) level o detail recognized by the World CustomsOrganization (which governs international trade data reporting) to analyzetrade patterns. A complete description o how ood products have beendened in this study is provided in the appendix.

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