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Marvelous Mental Arithmetic Tricks

Marvelous Mental Arithmetic Tricks

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Published by vedam1931

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Published by: vedam1931 on Aug 08, 2009
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07/18/2013

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New mental arithmetic techniques/tricks
AMARNATH MURTHYCHIEF ENGINEER (ELEX & TELCOM)ONGC, AHMEDABAD, INDIA
Fifth root of a 10 digit numbers which are perfect fifth powers.
First we have to list and memorise the fifth power of numbers from 1 to 9.1 , 32, 243, 1024, 3125, 7776, 16807, 32768, 59049The beauty is the unit digit is the same. A^5 Ξ A mod 10. ( A =1 to 9)Consider an up to 10 digit number as a fifth power of a two digit number.If the number has n digits n <= 10, consider the number formed by the n-5MSDs ( most significant digits). Let it be NFind numbers r and r +1 such that r^5 < N < (r +1)^5.Let the unit digit of the given number be
a
’.Then digit ‘
r
‘ followed by digit ‘
a’
is the required fifth root.Example : find the fifth root of 656356768 .The unit digit of the fifth root is 8.Leaving first five digits we have 6563.5^5 = 3125 < 6563 < 7776 = 6^5 hence the tens digit is 5The answer is 58. In fact one need not know the digit 2
nd
to 5
th
.i.e. if the perfect fifth power number given is 6563 _ _ _ _8 , still one can findthe fifth root.
 
 Fifth root of a 15 digit number
Finding the fifth root of a 15 digit number involves the knowledge of somemore concepts in mathematics. i.e. modular arithmetic.Number N N^5 N^5 mod 9 N^5 mod 111 1 1 12 32 5 103 243 9
1
4 1024 7 15 3125 2 16 7776 9
10
7 16807 4 108 32768 8 109 59049 9
1
Multiple of 11 - -
11 **
Just remember that1.
 
Mod 9 values for 1 , 8 and 9 are the same (1,8,9)2.
 
Mod 9 value for 2 is 5 , 5 is 2 , 4 is 7 and 7 is 4.3.
 
Mod 9 values for 3, 6 and 9 is 9. This creates the problem and one cannot uniquely find the number ( the fifth root). Mod 11 values for 3, 6, 9come to the rescue with some intelligent estimation.Example1:49420005843968Step1. Make groups of five digit numbers from the right.4942 00058 43968Step 2. The first group gives unit digit 8.Step3. Consider the last group 4942.
 
It lies between 3125 and 7776 i.e. 5^5 and 6^5.Hence the third digit is 5.What remains is to find the middle digit. Let it be A.The required number is 5A8.Step4. Find 49420005843968 mod 9 i.e. the digital root of the number. Goon summing the digits till one arrives at a single digit number. Or by castingout 9 from 49420005843968 we get 8.8 corresponds to 8 from the table.Hence 5A8 mod 9 = 8 which gives 5 + A + 8 = 17 => X = 4.And the answer is 548.Note1: The question that may arise in one’s mind is, as to why the sum ischosen as 17 and why not 26. The answer is simple; A is a single digitnumber. In case of a number like 9A9 with mod 9 value as 8 the obviouschoice for the sum is 26. 9+A+9 =26 which would have given A =8.Note2: In this case the mod 9 value is other than 9 hence the need toexamine mod 11 does not arise. Let us take another example.Example 2: 58602385427607Step1: group the numbers as below.5860 23854 27607The first group on the right gives unit digit as 7.Step 2.5860 lies between 3125= 5^5 and 7776= 6^5. This gives the last digit as 5.Let the middle digit be AThen the number is 5A7.Step3

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