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Buck Converter

Buck Converter



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Published by mayank.rkl

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Published by: mayank.rkl on Aug 09, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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This project is based on the study and design of a buck converter which is basically a dc-dc converter.It steps down the voltage which is dc in nature and hence it is used where transformer fails. It alsoemphasizes on the study of switched mode power supply. After a detailed study, a matlab code waswritten and then it was converted to its corresponding Verilog code using Simulink HDL coder forhardware implementation.
Over the years as the portable electronics industry progressed, different requirements evolvedsuch as increased battery lifetime, small and cheap systems, brighter, full-color displays and ademand for increased talk-time in cellular phones. An ever increasing demand from powersystems has placed power consumption at a premium. To keep up with these demandsengineers have worked towards developing efficient conversion techniques and also haveresulted in the subsequent formal growth of an interdisciplinary field of Power Electronics.However it comes as no surprise that this new field has offered challenges owing to the uniquecombination of three major disciplines of electrical engineering: electronics, power and control.
Why use a switching regulator?
Voltage regulation conventionally has been done by Linear Regulators but slowly is beingreplaced with Switching Regulators. To realize the importance of a switching regulator we willfirst compare its efficiency with a linear regulator. The resistance of the linear regulator varies in
accordance with the load resulting in a constant output voltage.
Linear Regulator
The figure shows a simple Linear Regulator. If we consider an example, where
= 24 and we want to have a
= 12. In this case we need to drop 12 voltsacross the regulator.Using standard power equation:
If the output current = 10A, this will result in 10 A * 12 V = 120 W. Now the regulator mustdissipate 120 W of heat energy. This results in a mere50% efficiency for the linear regulator and a lot of wasted power which isnormally transformed into heat. Provision for heat sinks for cooling makes theregulator bulky and large. Hence, where size and efficiency are critical, linearvoltage regulators cannot be used.The above figure is a very basic switching regulator. The switching regulator is a
simple switch (and hence ideally no resistance or very low resistance). Thisswitch goes on and off at a fixed rate (usually between 50 KHz to 100 KHz).
Comparison between Linear & Switching RegulatorsDC-DC converters
These are electronic devices that are used whenever we want to change DC electrical powerefficiently from one voltage level to another.We have mentioned the drawbacks of doing thiswith a linear regulator and presented the case for SMPS. Generically speaking the use of aswitch or switches for the purpose of power conversion can be regarded as an SMPS.From nowonwards whenever we mention DC-DC converters we shall address them with respect toSMPS. A few applications of interest of DC-DC converters are where 5V DC on a personalcomputer motherboard must be stepped down to 3V, 2V or less for one of the latest CPU chips;where 1.5V from a single cell must be stepped up to 5V or more, to operate electronic circuitry.In all of these applications, we want to change the DC energy from one voltage level to another,while wasting as little as possible in the process. In other words, we want to perform theconversion with the highest possible efficiency. DC-DC Converters are needed because unlike
AC, DC can’t simply be stepped up or down using a transf 
ormer. In many ways, a DC-DCconverter is the DC equivalent of a transformer. They essentially just change the input energyinto a different impedance level. So whatever the output voltage level, the output power all

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