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TYPE 45 - The Anti-Air Warfare Destroyer
World-leading littoral air defence


Type 45 is an Anti-Air Warfare Destroyer designed to protect UK and allied/coalition forces at sea

and in the littoral against the full range of enemy aircraft and anti-ship missiles. In addition she has a wide suite of capabilities including Maritime Force Projection through Naval Fire Support and Littoral Manoeuvre. In peacetime, T45 will undertake a wide range of Defence Tasks around the globe supporting civil authorities in the UK and abroad through Maritime Security Operations whilst maintaining a high readiness to respond with Humanitarian Aid or Non combatant Evacuation Operations.


A Type 45 can...
detect, deter, defend, dominate or destroy.

It can also undertake...

defence diplomacy and disaster relief operations.




Type 45 Daring Class Destroyers

Principle Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS) 1 x 4.5” Mk 8 Gun 2 x 30mm Automated Guns NATO Seagnat Decoy Launchers Machine Guns Small Calibre Guns

Displacement Length Beam Draught Complement 7500 tonnes 152.5 m 21.2 m 7.4 m 191

2 x Type 1047 Navigational Radars 1 x Type 1048 Navigational Radar 1 x Multi Functional Radar (MFR) 1 x Long Range Radar (LRR) 1 x IFF Radar Electronic Surveillance System Active/Passive sonar

Fully Integrated Communications System (FICS) SCOT Satellite Communications System

1 x LYNX helicopters fitted with: Sea Skua Anti-Ship Missiles Stingray Torpedoes Machine Guns or 1 x MERLIN Helicopter

The Type 45 represents a quantam leap in surface warfare design and capability reflecting innovation, foresight and an eye to the future in virtually every aspect. High speed, extended endurance and aggressive capability combine to provide robust, versatile and economic maritime effect.

The most advanced surface warship in the world
Here is just a selection of the superlatives applicable to the Type 45:
To meet the challenging speed and endurance requirements, the Type 45 Destroyer accommodates two Rolls Royce WR21 Gas Turbine-driven alternators, two Wartsila Diesel Generators, two Alstom Electric Propulsion Motors and their associated control and distribution systems. The ship will accelerate faster and turn inside current ships, with a top speed of well over 30 knots. the size of a cricket ball approaching at three times the speed of sound. When required, the Type 45 can fire multiple missiles at a time and guide each one precisely to a different target. Her hypersonic missiles can reach Mach 4-5 (five times the speed of sound) in just two seconds.

The Type 45 are the first warships to feature Integrated Electric Propulsion, replacing gearboxes with direct shaft drive from electric motors.

Type 45 provides the future air defence capability for the Royal Navy, offering local air defence for maritime task group and area air defence at long range.The ships contains about 800 compartments – some of which are purposely unallocated to simplify the introduction of equipment developed over her projected 30-year service life. The flight deck and aviation facilities are designed to operate LYNX or MERLIN helicopters. The flight deck area is four times that of a Type 42 destroyer – big enough to land a CHINOOK.

Type 45 has been engineered to maximise survivability within any given threat. Clean angular lines contribute to her stealth profile and deck fitments are concealed behind doors. The Type 45’s radar can track multiple incoming threats simultaneously, prioritise them, assign countermeasures and deploy them to their targets. It can even track a target

T45 will operate with a crew of 191, each with their own berth in well-appointed cabins. For the first time on board a destroyer, there are dedicated recreation spaces for all ranks and dedicated accommodation and facilities for 60 Royal Marines with their kit. The Type 45 boasts a near 40 percent increase in crew space relative to existing warships.

The two Rolls-Royce gas turbines create nearly 45 MW of electrical power – sufficient to power a city. She will have a range of over 7000 nautical miles at 18 knots, sufficient to cross the Atlantic, carry out missions and return without refuelling or, alternatively, to reach the Falkland Islands with fuel in hand. Careful attention to storing arrangements has ensured that a Type 45 can be provisioned for a 45-day mission in just 12 hours.

The Type 45 Anti-Air Warfare Destroyer is designed primarily to protect UK national and allied/coalition forces against all known airborne threats. Comprehensively equipped to provide self-protection, local and area air defence, her advanced weapon and sensor fit sets the benchmark standard for air defence destroyer capability.

Advanced combat system
Combat Management System/ Data Transfer System (CMS/DTS)
CMS/DTS System enables the Command Team to manage and operate the combat system and achieve the ship’s operational objectives. The CMS comprises the Command System, Command Support System, Secondary Data Display, Tactical Data Link and Video Distribution subsystems. It performs tactical picture compilation, threat evaluation, weapon assignment and control of Sea Viper and other combat system equipments. The innovative Tactical Data Links capability allows the Type 45 to share high quality tactical picture information with other platforms, thus enabling rapid and secure tactical coordination within the force. An integrated fast ethernet DTS provides the high-speed digital intercommunication highway between combat system equipments. 1 2 6 5 8 This advanced weapon system will defend the Type 45, her consorts and other task force vessels against highly manoeuvrable hostile incoming aircraft and missiles approaching at subsonic and supersonic speed, individually or in salvoes. The Type 45 will be alerted to a potential threat by her electronic warfare system, long-range radar, or by early warning from allied units. 3 4 7 Launched from six eight-cell DCN Sylver A50 vertical launchers controlled by the Sea Viper System, the MBDA shorter-range

Sea Viper
The Type 45’s main armament is Sea Viper, a world-beating surface-to-air missile system developed under a tri-national programme by France, Italy and the UK. Sea Viper can counter an individual or saturation attack by engaging the target, or simultaneously engaging multiple targets from any angle. At the heart of Sea Viper is a Command and Control (C2) System which optimises the Type 45’s response to the attack.

Multi-Function Radar (MFR)
Aster 15 or long-range Aster 30 super-agile manoeuvring missiles with re-attack mode are guided towards their targets by the ship’s multi-function radar, even in severe electronic countermeasures environments. Once locked on, the Aster missiles pursue their targets relentlessly at speeds of Mach 4 to 5, overcoming even the most evasive dog-leg manoeuvres until the threat is intercepted and eliminated. The distinctive rotating Sampson MultiFunction Radar, mounted on top of the foremast high above the waterline, contains a dual-face active array radar. It performs highdefinition three-dimensional air and surface search-and-track functions using innovative digital adaptive beamforming. This provides T45 with the information to counter a range of threats, including high-speed sea-skimming missiles, by providing Sea Viper with multiple channel fire control.

Long Range Radar (LRR)
Rotating once every four seconds, the longrange radar provides three dimensional volume search capability for Sea Viper and other ship systems. The LRR is capable of automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of up to 1000 targets and of providing this information to the Combat Management System.

Identification Friend or Foe (IFF)
The interrogator IFF antenna mounted on the LRR, assists the ships’ Combat Management System in the long-range identification of friendly platforms and potential threats, using standard civilian and military communications techniques.





1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

LYNX HMA8/MERLIN HM1 Helicopter with Stingray Torpedoes and Sea Skua Missiles Navigation Radar Long-Range Radar with Identification Friend or Foe Interrogator Communications Mast DLH Offboard Decoy System (P & S) 6 30mm Automatic Small Calibre Guns (P & S) 30mm Automatic Small Calibre Guns (P & S) Sampson Multi-Function Radar Electro Optical Gunfire Control System DLF Passive Naval Decoy System (P & S) Sea Viper Sylver Surface to Air Vertical Launch Silos 4.5 Mk8 Mod 1 Naval Gun MFS -7000 Bow Sonar (under keel – not shown)

Advanced combat system
Medium Calibre Main Gun
A 4.5 in. Mk8 Mod 1 Naval Gun mounting provides Type 45 with an effective, battleproven naval fire support/shore bombardment capability and a secondary role in support of Anti-Surface Warfare operations. It receives commands from and issues tellbacks to an Electro-Optical Gunfire Control System.

Electro-Optical Gunfire Control System (EOGCS)
EOGCS provides the means to survey the visual environment local to the Type 45 by day or night. It detects, identifies and tracks potential surface and air targets and either issues commands to engage them, or passes information to other subsystems, enabling them to respond.

enough to land a twin-rotor CHINOOK to deliver or embark troops or stores. To reduce the pilot’s workload to a minimum, a technically advanced suite of visual landing aids has been incorporated, facilitating safe recovery of the ship’s helicopter in all weathers and at night. A hangar with maintenance platform accepts the helicopter with rotors stowed.

Small Calibre Guns
The Automatic 30mm Naval Guns, located port and starboard, feature the Oerlikon KCB cannon. These guns receive commands from and issue tellbacks to the Electro-Optical Gunfire Control System and are employed to destroy close-in threats such as fast attack craft, speedboats and inflatables, or to engage helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles at close range.

The Type 45 is designed to operate a MERLIN HM1 or LYNX HMA 8 helicopter, armed with Stingray anti-submarine torpedoes and Sea Skua anti-ship missiles. Her flight deck is large

Medium Frequency Sonar
Medium Frequency Sonar detects and identifies underwater threats such as submarines or mines.

Fully Integrated Communications System
FICS provides a comprehensive solution to the Type 45’s operational commmunication requirements, including HF, VHF and UHF radio, underwater telephone, internal telephones, internal voice communications, main broadcast, wire-free communications, recreational services, a satellite communications interface, tactical data links, formal and informal messaging and data services.

Meteorological and Oceanographic (METOC) System
The METOC system workstation collates, displays and distributes environmental data to the Type 45 Combat System. Informed by an integrated suite of meteorological and subsea sensors, satellite data and other information sources, the system interfaces with the Data Transfer, Navigation and Command Support Systems and Fully Integrated Communications System.

Active Decoy Round (ADR) designed to counter active radar homing anti-ship missiles. A Radar Electronic Support Measures (RESM) system features new signal processing and emitter identification technology. This radar-band detection system provides the Type 45 with the ability to detect and identify potentially hostile air and surface units in advance of radar detection, complementing IFF’s ability to identify friendly units.

Integrated Navigation System
The Integrated Bridge System comprises navigation radars, an electronic chart, display and information systems, inertial navigation system and the data distribution sub-system.

Electronic Warfare Systems
The ship’s passive naval off-board decoy system, RN Outfit DLF, is a rapid response countermeasures system deploying a radiating expendable inflatable floating seduction decoy, effective against radar-guided anti ship missiles. Sea Gnat RN Outfit DLH delivers seduction or distraction decoy rounds such as infrared flare and chaff. It will also deploy a new

Incremental Acquisition
The ship design has included some provision for additional combat system capability. Potential upgrades accommodated by the provision of space and/or services include a larger Main Gun or 16-cell Land Attack Missile silo, Torpedo Launch Systems, Surface Ship Torpedo Defence (SSTD), a Phalanx Inner Layer Defence System (ILDS) and a Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC).

Type 45 Joint Capability
TG Protection
The Carrier Strike Group (CSG) and Amphibious Task Group (ATG) require Air Defence (AD) Force Protection (FP) in any situation where a credible threat of airborne weapons exists (whether air, surface, land or underwater launched), including the asymmetric air threat. T45 will provide dedicated Force AD and FP to High Value Units (HVUs) and Mission Essential Units (MEUs) against pop up/late unmasking threats, long range missiles and during periods where a fighter layer is unavailable. It will therefore enable maritime force projection to be delivered in increased threat areas and is a critical enabler of Carrier Strike (CS) and Littoral Manoeuvre. of a given mission can operate under the full range of tactical control within an assigned Battlespace Management Area (BMA) for all or part of their mission. Tanker and ISTAR support working in Direct Support (DS) could exploit the protection offered by the Sea Viper Isoleth, which can act as a ‘safe haven’ for High Value Airborne Assets.

Joint Battlespace Management
As joint operations and Network Enabled Capability (NEC) enable the transition towards a single integrated battlespace, the T45 will be a key contributor towards provision of positive, dynamic and procedural control of the battlespace within the maritime/air/land littoral seam. T45, with wide area organic situational awareness through MFR/LRR, integrated data exchange via Link 11/16/Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) and NEC C4 functionality associated with Joint Command and Control Support Programme (JC2SP), will be able to provide BM overland from the sea (where topography allows). Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR), Defensive Counter Air (DCA) and Close Air Support CAS) assets acting in support

Command Hosting
T45 provides the planning space, IT facilities and communications to host a 1* Maritime Battlestaff, Tailored JFACHQ or SF Component Commander. For Small Scale operations especially, T45 will be able to host the Maritime Component Commander (MCC) or Commander Task Group (CTG)/Commander Task Unit (CTU) for the UK Joint Task Force Commander (JTFC), or host elements of a Joint Task Force HQ or scaleable Joint Force Air Component HQ (afloat). In addition, T45 may form part of a UK national component (possibly as CTG, CTU, Sector Air Defence Commander

(SADC) or ADC) or host the Composite Warfare Commander (CWC) of a maritime coalition force under the command of a Coalition JTFC. In the post conflict phase of a Joint campaign, T45 will offer the JTFC the opportunity to reduce the military profile and footprint ashore while retaining credible firepower and command in theatre. This offers political choice, especially in the early phases of a conflict.

more integrated coverage than the RN has historically managed to provide with previous Air Defence platforms.

14 HQ Staff allowing them to plan and execute operations by an EMF (potentially Special Forces) and deploy and sustain 60 personnel, and their equipment ashore, using ship’s boats and/or organic or FOB helicopter(s).

Embarked Military Force (EMF)
An EMF increases the range of maritime and joint operations with which the T45 may be tasked. An EMF may support Power Projection through Combat Operations against the land and support Joint Operations, the protection of UK entitled citizens, Non Combatant Evacuation Operations (NEO), humanitarian operations, disaster relief and defence diplomacy. The T45 will act as a Forward Operating Base (FOB) for

T45’s war fighting capabilities will be enhanced with the inclusion of an embarked flight that is currently scaled to comprise a single LYNX (Mk3 or Mk8) although the ship is also configured to embark a MERLIN Mk1 flight. In time, the deck will be authorised for a wide range of other helicopters, including CHINOOK and potentially Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV). Deck lighting is NVG-compatible as are LED Pilot Information Lights – light panels around the hangar screen and flight deck to assist the pilot’s approach to the deck. The hangar can accommodate 1 MERLIN or 2 LYNX and there are several stores for items such as sonobuoys.

UK Defence
Maintaining the integrity of UK airspace entails the maintenance of a continuous RAP and contingency plans for the interception and possible destruction of renegade and hostile aircraft. Connectivity and surveillance capabilities of T45 will enable greater,

Type 45 Joint Capability
T45 is not a specialist ASuW/ASW platform. Nonetheless, in common with other Destroyers and Frigates, it is able to co-ordinate anti surface attacks by other units and contribute to these attacks using its own helicopter, either as a targeting or missile-firing unit (LYNX). A comprehensive tactical picture composed of own sensor information and data received from Tactical Data Links (TDLs) can be readily compiled and T45 will be able to neutralise small surface contacts, including Fast Inshore Attack Craft, using Close Range Weapon Systems. Provision has been made in the design for surface-surface guided weapons (SSGW) in the future. T45 has an underwater warfare self defence capability to detect, track and classify submarines and to detect mines and torpedoes. This is achieved via Medium Frequency Sonar (2091), Surface Ship Torpedo Defence (2170) and helicopters for passive/ active sonar and hardkill ASW weapons.

T45 may be involved either alone or as part of a joint force in the protection and evacuation of UK Citizens and other civilians from trouble spots when airfields and commercial ports are not available. Being self-sustaining, T45 will be able to contribute to these operations with little or no in-country or host nation support and will be able to respond rapidly to any deterioration of the situation. T45 will be able to embark a large number of evacuees for short periods, providing them basic accommodation, sustenance and medical services. Even without taking additional emergency measures, T45 design provides for accommodation margin of 45, taking into account an EMF of 30 persons. T45 has the administrative and IT support to act as an Evacuation Handling Centre and is able to overload at least 700 evacuees for up to 48 hours and at least 200 for over 48 hours.

T45 may be required to contribute to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations for periods of up to 72 hours without external assistance or support. T45 will be able to provide first aid humanitarian relief to a community over a short period pending the arrival of major relief efforts, including the provision of hot food, potable water, medical assistance (triage) and basic repair and essential services. T45 should be able to land over 70% of the Ship’s Company alongside or 50% at anchor (dependant on prevailing conditions) for disaster relief or humanitarian operations without compromise to ship’s safety.

T45 provides a Role 1 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) which provides primary health care, specialised first aid, triage, resuscitation and stabilisation. Included within the basic Role 1 capabilities are: basic occupational and preventative medical advice to the chain of command, routine sick call and the management of minor sick and injured personnel for immediate return to duty, as well as casualty collection from the point of wounding and preparation of casualties for evacuation to a higher level MTF. Enhancement with a Surgical Team would allow basic Role 2 capability to be provided.

produce, collate and forward full operational incident records in support of any subsequent action is an essential factor in conducting these operations. T45 will be able to stop and search a wide-range of vessels in support of military

or civilian agencies and conduct compliant and non-compliant boardings following appropriate training. T45 is able to detain small numbers of suspects for short periods pending delivery to an appropriate law enforcement agency.


T45 will be required to operate with other military units to interdict shipping, enforce embargoes and support civil authorities in UK waters and overseas, in support of UK interests. These operations involve surveillance, co-ordination between units and the ability to board vessels if necessary. The ability to T45 will contribute to NFS using Indirect or Direct gunfire from the 4.5” Mk8 Mod 1 Naval gun. It can operate within range of hostile shore-based Surface to Surface missile batteries with Sea Viper providing automatic cover via Reflex Action while simultaneously inserting troops by air or sea.

The Type 45 is the first front-line warship in the world to be powered by an Integrated Electric Propulsion (IEP) System comprising gas turbines and dieseldriven generators, high-voltage switchgear, harmonic filters, transformers, electronic power converters and advanced induction propulsion motors.

Revolutionary integrated electric propulsion
The Power System is effectively a sea-going power station and enough generating capacity is installed to power a city. The electric power is used to drive two groups of consumers: those dedicated to propelling the ship through the water and the second group that comprises the ships’ weapon and sensor systems and the service systems that provide ventilation, fuel, cooling water and domestic needs. They meet military shock standards but also achieve a very high power density when compared with equivalent commercial designs. Switchgear distributes the power to the consumers, either at 4160V AC to the VDM25000 propulsion converters, or via transformers at 440V and 115V AC to the ships’ weapon and service systems.

Power system diagram

The electronic power converters provide variable frequency supplies to the 100-tonne reversible propulsion motors. These are directly coupled to the propeller shafts, obviating the need for traditional gearboxes or controllable pitch propeller systems. Harmonic filters remove unwanted distortion in the electrical supplies. The Rolls Royce WR-21 is the first large marine gas turbine to incorporate compressor intercooling and exhaust heat recuperation

(IEP) technologies that deliver high efficiency across the engines’ operating range. A single gas turbine can power both propulsion and hotel loads. This reduces whole life costs, as the single gas turbine mode can be employed for a considerable part of the ships’ operating lives. It also means that either gas turbine can drive either or both propellers.

The Diesel Generators provide electrical power for ship’s services when in harbour. A Platform Management System accessible from 80 shipwide plug-in points facilitates remote machinery control and surveillance and damage control and surveillance. The IEP system offers significant benefits to the Royal Navy, including improved efficiency, simplicity of operation for the crew and reduced maintenance and hence cost over the life of the ship.

The Type 45 Destroyer is a futuristic-looking surface warship purpose-designed to meet the needs of the Royal Navy today, tomorrow and for the next 30 years.

A platform for the future
T45 has been constructed with power, ventilation and space for future enhancement. This reflects the need for great versatility to meet the diverse range of roles that the ship may be called on to perform. The following capabilities could be fitted if required by UK Defence:

Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence (TBMD)
Whilst the T45 and Sea Viper are not contracted to provide a TMD capability, there is some evidence that the SAMPSON radar in specific modes could be enhanced to provide greater detection and/or warning of ballistic threats.

Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM)
Specific space and growth margins exist within hull design to fit a modular 16 cell TLAM Vertical Launch Silo (VLS) providing T45 with a cost effective long range strike capability upgrade if required by UK defence.

Co-operative Engagement Capability (CEC)
Utilising composite level plot data derived from each participating sensor within the force, it is a force multiplier and provides significantly increased accuracy in Situational Awareness, weapon effort planning, Combat ID, platform survivability and Joint Air Defence.

Communication Electronic Support Measures (CESM)
SHAMAN will be the maritime CESM system fitted to the Type 45 destroyers and Type 23 frigates from 2013. SHAMAN is designed primarily to provide Fleet Indicators and Warnings (I&W) as to any potential adversary’s intent.

Fireshadow Loitering Munition (LM)
LMs are launched into the air and provide a persistent loitering capability whilst targets are tracked/identified. On operator command, LMs can be authorised to engage and execute a terminal dive. The Fireshadow design is compatible with the space envelope of T45s Sylver VLS.

Naval Fire Support (NFS) Enhancement
T45 design includes provision for upgrade to a 6”/155mm gun. This would have the triple advantages of increased range, firepower and commonality with UK land artillery systems and projectiles.

Type 45 with Type 42 overlayed in red

Type 45 ...World-leading littoral air defence

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