product (e.g., Rajagopal & Ramanan, 2011) and attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control found to explain their intention to choose a halal product (e.g., Mukhtar & Muhammad Butt, 2012). Previous studies focus on halal products particularly certification, which
do not reflect consumers’ awareness of fatwa.
The current certification is concerned with the use of ingredients in products and sometimes the hygiene of the production process. Certification, so far, has not incorporated all fatwa. Limited studies on fatwa suggest that
Muslim consumers’ religious motivation
explain their sources for information (Muhamad & Mizerski, 2010), and their intention to purchase product subject to fatwa is related to religiosity (Muhamad & Mizerski, 2007). Their commitment to religion was found related to beliefs about the boycott of Danish products (Al-Hyari, Muhammed & Muhamed, 2012). The study focuses on one fatwa; thus, it is insufficient to explain the overall effects of fatwa.
Religions such as Islam continuously issue rulings to adapt to its 1,400- year-old principles and rulings to modern lifestyles. The two main sources of Islamic law are the Quran and the Sunnah. After Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) died, prominent Muslim scholars met and applied the general ruling from the main references to provide ruling for contemporary issues not explicitly explained in the main texts
the ruling is known as fatwa (Wiechman, Kendall, & Azarian, 1996). For example, financial interest or
is explicitly prohibited in the Quran, but not contemporary financial products. Upon request from the Muslim community, an authorized local fatwa committee made up of prominent scholars will declare rulings on goods based on the main texts, relevant precedence, and expert opinions (Wiechman, Kendall, & Azarian, 1996). The rulings could be against businesses by a prohibition on consumers from buying and consuming everyday consumer products and brands (Muhamad & Mizerski, 2010) and could lead to global consumer movements to boycott products and brands. The fatwa against American products or brands that support Israel
stands on the Palestine issues spread within global Muslim communities. Because of this, in predominantly Muslim countries, some businesses find that they continuously have to convince the public of their contribution to the local economy. In other cases, financial and banking institutions quickly develop products that comply or adopt
concepts in response to fatwa (Bokhari, 2007). In reality, learning about contemporary fatwa rulings can be challenging for many Muslims. Fatwa rulings sometimes are not well received and surrounded with arguments and controversies (Azizan, 2008). Consumers gather fatwa information from various sources such as the Internet, religious speeches, and magazines and are not only limited to local declarations (Muhamad & Mizerski, 2010). The Internet provides communities access to information on rulings, opinions, and debates from all over the world; and they are free to decide which to adopt (Roy, 2004). Consequently, a Middle East fatwa easily spreads to consumers around the world. Despite the richness of information, the proliferation of fatwa information sources may, however, confuse consumers. Some who are intrinsically motivated to follow their religious teachings are more inclined to conform to rulings than their extrinsic counterparts.
measures the individual’s motivation
to follow their religion.
Based on this measure, one’s approach
to follow a religion can be identified as either intrinsic or extrinsic (Allport & Ross, 1967). Intrinsic individuals are those who put