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Plant Tissue Culture

Plant Tissue Culture

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Published by Nasir Hussain Faraz
Plant tissue culture is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant.
Plant tissue culture is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant.

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Published by: Nasir Hussain Faraz on Aug 10, 2009
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05/11/2014

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 Application of plant tissue culture in plant breeding ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 APPLICATION OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE IN PLANT BREEDING1. Introduction:
Aplant breeder may use tissue culture to screen cells rather than plants for advantageouscharacters, e.g.herbicideresistance/tolerance.Tissue culture is the culture andmaintenance of plant cells or organs in sterile, nutritionally and environmentallysupportive conditions (in vitro). The techniques of tissue-culture itself also offer many possibilities for production of plants of high quality but up to now, this potential has beenlittle exploited. During growth in vitro, plants can be "prepared" for optimal growth after transfer to ex-vitro conditions. Potentially, following such manipulations, tissue-cultured plants out-perform conventionally propagated plants. Thus, for a sustainable andcompetitive agriculture and forestry in Pakistan, in-vitro culture is essential: it is a prerequisite for the successful application of plant breeding by biotechnological methods,for the rapid introduction of improved plants in the market and it offers unique possibilities for the production of plants of superior quality.Plant breeding and crop production, both by traditional and biotechnologicalmethods, increasingly rely on plant tissue culture (in-vitro culture) as a mainstream toolthat provides key opportunities for plant quality enhancement and subsequent economicsustainability. For example, the development of pest- and disease-resistant plants through biotechnology depends on a tissue-culture growth stage; as a result, these resistancesenable growers to reduce or eliminate the application of crop-protection chemicals. By propagation in vitro, new and/or elite plants can be mass-propagated with far greater speed than through traditional methods.The importance of plant tissue culture in plant breeding, to raise and stabilizeyield, to improve resistance, against pests, disease and abiotic stresses such as droughtand cold; and to enhance the nutritional content of food. Biotechnological breeding is anessential tool to achieve these goals, and, as noted before, tissue culture is an integral partof plant breeding through biotechnology. Plant quality enhancement were improved by invitro culture, giving rise to plants that are free of most, or even all, endogenous pathogens. There are, though, more and often still non-explored aspects about quality of 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------National University of Agricultural Sciences (NUAS), NARC, Islamabad 
 
 Application of plant tissue culture in plant breeding ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
tissue-cultured plants. Plant quality can be influenced by many different factors: by themanipulation of the physiological, nutritional and physical culture environment; byrooting treatments; through the induction of culture photosynthesis; by the application of endophytic and epiphytic organisms. Thus, during growth in vitro, plants can be preparedfor optimal growth after their transfer to ex vitro conditions. This means that the in vitrosystem may also be used to increase the quality of the plants. It should be noted that because of the in vitro environment, the performance of the plant may suffer instead of  benefit. Plant growth regulators used during tissue culture may have unwanted after-effects. Furthermore, because of high humidity and low light intensity during the tissue-culture stage, following transfer to soil, the plants need to adjust to their newenvironment. Optimal performance after transfer to ex vitro conditions is determined bydifferent plant characteristics such as the capacity to withstand "hardening" (preferably, plants should be conditioned in such a way that no hardening treatment is necessary), thecapacity to form a well developed root- and leaf-system and genetic stability. Therefore,tissue-cultured plants show a far better performance after transfer to soil than plantsobtained by conventional plant breeding techniques.
2. Applications to Plant Breeding
Plant tissue culture represents one of the major activities in plant breeding at laboratorieslevels, e.g. seed culture, embryo culture,ovary or ovule culture, anther and microsporeculture, in vitro pollination, organ culture, shoot apical meristem culture,somaticembryogenesis, organogenesis,enhanced axillary budding,callus cultures,in vitromutagenesis, protoplast isolation culture and fusion,micro grafting,in vitro flowering,enetic transformation ect.This technology is currently used in three major areas includingclonal propagation of plants, production of disease-free stock plant propagules, and production of plant secondary metabolites for industrial and medical purposes.
2.1 Haploid Plants from Tissue Culture:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------National University of Agricultural Sciences (NUAS), NARC, Islamabad 
 
 Application of plant tissue culture in plant breeding ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plant tissue culture have extended the range of crop species from which haploid plantshave been produced as well as the efficiency resulting in large-scale haploid plant production by anther and microspore culture techniques Specialized plant tissue culturemethods have enabled the production of completely homozygous breeding lines fromgametic cells in a shortened time frame compared to conventional plant breeding. Plantsfrom gametic cells of an F1 hybrid represent a gametic array each having a differentgenetic contribution from the parents. Lines exhibiting the desired characteristics arechosen for large-scale field trials as a prelude to commercialization. Although the number of new plant varieties developed via this method has been limited, refinement of tissueculture techniques has extended the range of crop species from which haploid plants have been produced as well as the efficiency resulting in large-scale haploid plant production.Several varieties developed via this method are grown on considerable acreage whileothers are being tested as candidates to replace varieties developed by conventionalmethods.
2.2 Triploid Production by Plant Tissue Culture:
Most of the flowering plants are diploid with two sets of chromosomes. The plants with ahigher number of chromosomes are called polyploids. Many spontaneous and induced polyploid varieties of crop plants are under cultivation because of their better vigor,improved fruit size/quality, and/or attractive flowers or foliage. The triploid plants, withthree sets of chromosomes, are seed-sterile due to disturbance in gamete formationTriploid nature of endosperm is the characteristic feature of angiosperms and isformed as a result of triple fusion. The role of tissue culture to morphogenic response and production of triploid plantlets have done by endosperm culture. Both mature andimmature endosperm used for culture initiation responded differently in cultures. A keyfactor for the induction of cell divisions in mature endosperm cultures is the initialassociation of embryo but immature endosperms proliferate independent of embryo. Inalmost all the parasitic angiosperms, endosperm shows a tendency of directdifferentiation of organs without prior callusing, whereas in autotrophic taxa the
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------National University of Agricultural Sciences (NUAS), NARC, Islamabad 

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