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1
YUTORAH IN PRINT • A PROJECT OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY’S CENTER FOR THE JEWISH FUTURE
 Vayishlach 5774
Download thousands of audio shiurim and articles at www.yutorah.org 
The Marcos and Adina Katz
YUTORAH
IN
 PRINT
 Vayishlach 5774
A
s he apparenly harmonious reunion o Yaakov and Esav draws o a close (a reunion which, according o he rabbis, is acually more discordan han appears on he surace), he orah recouns he ollowing conversaion beween he brohers:Esav: Le us ravel…and I will proceed alongside you. Yaakov: My lord knows ha he children are ender and ha he sheep and catle are a burden upon me. I hey are driven hard or a single day, hen all he sheep will die. Le my lord ravel ahead o his servan and I will make my way according o he pace dicaed by he catle…and by he children; unil I come o my maser a Seir.Esav: Allow me o assign o you some o he people who are wih me. Yaakov: For wha purpose? Simply allow me o find avor in my lord’s eyes. Afer he conversaion concludes, Esav reurns o his home in Seir while Yaakov ravels o Succo.
Questions
 Why does he orah record his dialogue? Are he brohers’ ravel arrangemens so significan ha hey need o be deailed or poseriy?How does his seemingly innocuous conversaion serve as an appropriae epilogue o he dramaic reunion beween  Yaakov and Esav and o he powerul evens ha preceded i? Why does Yaakov ell Esav ha he will join him a Seir, and hen ravel o a oally differen desinaion?
 Approaches
 A: As usual, he pashu psha o he orah ex conveys volumes.  Wha seems, a firs, o be an innocuous conversaion is acually, upon examinaion, a criical negoiaion. Years o separaion and he dramaic reunion have all led o his one momen. Te pariarch mus now careully delineae his ongoing relaionship  wih his broher as he cauiously reads along he pah beween open hosiliy and “oo much” harmony. We find ourselves, again, a one o hose quie momens  wihin he pariarchal era when a missep on he par o one man can inexorably and permanenly aler he course o our naion’s hisory. Agains he backdrop o he preceding evens and wih he undercurrens beneah he diplomaic language revealed, he conversaion beween Yaakov and Esav migh well read as ollows:Esav’s opening gambi: “Le us ravel…and I will proceed alongside you…” I am no going o le my broher ou o my sigh again. I will, hereore, sugges ha we ravel ogeher owards a shared desinaion. I we move ogeher hrough lie, i will only be a mater o ime beore he and his amily are overwhelmed by he srengh o my presence and lose heir uniqueness. Our camps will hen coalesce and become one eniy under my conrol. Yaakov’s rejoinder: “My lord knows ha he children are ender and ha he sheep and catle are a burden upon me. I hey are driven hard or a single day, hen all he sheep will die. Le my lord ravel ahead o his servan and I will make my way according o he pace dicaed by he catle…and by he children; unil I come o my maser a Seir.” Dear God,  wha a dangerous momen! A all coss, I canno allow our camps o ravel ogeher. Our lives and our prioriies are oally differen. I mus find a way o negoiae a severance rom my broher. And ye, how can I do so diplomaically,  wihou arousing his anger? Perhaps i I remind him ha I  will have o ravel slowly and i I le him hink ha I will join him in Seir, he will go on alone, ahead o me.Esav’s second atemp: “Allow me o assign o you some o he people who are wih me.” Yaakov’s rying o slip away!No so as! All I have o do is place some o my agens in his camp and, evenually, I will sill be able o conrol him. Yaakov’s rejoinder: “For wha purpose? Simply allow me o find avor in my lord’s eyes.” Oh, no, ha’s all I need – a fifh column wihin my own camp! I will jus have o poliely
 Yaakov Avinu and Limud Hatorah
Rabbi Shmuel Goldin
 
2
YUTORAH IN PRINT • A PROJECT OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY’S CENTER FOR THE JEWISH FUTURE
 Vayishlach 5774
Download thousands of audio shiurim and articles at www.yutorah.org 
reuse and again insis ha all I wan is good relaions. Hopeully, my broher will hen go on his way o Seir and I will go somewhere else enirely. By he ime we reach our respecive desinaions, he’ll ge he message ha I wan o keep my disance. Hopeully he will come o accep ha realiy or, a leas, he won’ find i worh he effor o come  back and find me.B: In he ligh o day, we winess ha Yaakov has learned  well he lessons ha were conveyed o him, dramaically and perilously, in he darkness o he nigh.In our previous sudy (see Vayishlach 2, Approaches c) we noed ha, on he eve o Yaakov’s reunion wih his broher, God caused he pariarch o sruggle in moral comba  wih a myserious sranger, idenified by he Midrash as an angel, he spiriual represenaive o Esav. Clearly, on one level, his conflic was mean o warn Yaakov o see beyond appearances a he meeing wih Esav he nex day. In he mos effecive way possible, God eaches he pariarch he hard and biter ruh ha, alhough hings migh seem harmonious on he surace, philosophical and even a imes physical conronaion will define he relaionship beween he brohers unil he end o days. In order o survive, Yaakov  will be orced o build he relaionship wih his broher  wihin clearly defined philosophical boundaries.Now Yaakov mees his momen o ruh. When all is said and done, Yaakov cauiously negoiaes a severance rom his broher. His successul compleion o his delicae negoiaion helps define he parameers or our naions long  journey across he ages.
Bishul Akum: Coffee, Anybody?
Rabbi Michael aubes
he orah relaes ha because Shechem, he son o Chamor rom he Chivi naion, desired o be wih Dinah, he daugher o Yaakov Avinu, Chamor, who  was he prince o he area, approached Yaakov and his sons  wih he proposal ha Dinah be given o Shechem as a wie and ha he wo communiies be encouraged o inermarry  wih one anoher (Bereishi 34:8-9). Tis is he firs occasion in he orah where inermarriage is specifically brough up; commening on he previous pasuk (ibid. verse 7), Rav  Yizchak Zev Soloveichik (Chiddushei Maran Ri”z HaLeivi  Al Haorah) poins ou, based on he Gemara in Avodah Zarah (36b), ha he Bei Din headed by Shem, he son o Noach, had acually already, a an earlier sage in hisory, decreed agains any inermarriage involving his descendans,  who would laer become he Jewish people, and a genile. Clearly, hen, as ha pasuk indicaes, a relaionship beween he daugher o Yaakov and someone rom he Chivi naion  was unaccepable, as i would consiue inermarriage.Te Mishnah in Avodah Zarah (35b) liss several iems  which may no be consumed i prepared by a non-Jew, even i all he ingrediens are Kosher; among hem are “shelako,defined by Rashi (s.v. vehashelako) as cooked oods, which are orbidden o a Jew even i cooked in Kosher uensils. Te goal o his Rabbinic prohibiion, Rashi (ibid.) explains, is o limi social ineracion beween Jews and non-Jews (where ood ofen plays a significan role) in order o preven inermarriage; according o osao laer in Avodah Zarah (37b, s.v. vehashelako), his is a very early Rabbinic decree (see, however, Chiddushei HaRiva ibid., s.v. vehashelako). Te Gemara isel idenifies his concern earlier in Avodah Zarah (31b), saing ha he beer o a non-Jew is prohibied ou o concern or inermarriage; Rashi here (s.v. mishum chanu) explains ha i one becomes accusomed o drinking a non-Jew’s beer, one may hen come o atend his drinking paries and subsequenly become atraced o a non-Jewish woman. I may be noed ha he Rambam, in his Peirush HaMishnayo o Avodah Zarah (2:6), poins ou ha here are oher Halachic problems which may surace as well i a Jew atends social gaherings ogeher wih non- Jews. Noneheless, he primary concern which moivaed he Rabbanan o oulaw various producs prepared by non-Jews, including oods cooked by hem, was ha o inermarriage, as he Rambam himsel codifies in his Mishneh orah (Hilcho Ma’achalo Asuro 17:9). A subsequen Gemara in Avodah Zarah (38a) presens an imporan limiaion o his rule prohibiing ood cooked  by a non-Jew, saing ha any ood which can be eaen raw is no subjec o he prohibiion, commonly known as “Bishul Akum,” and may hus be eaen i i is cooked by a non-Jew. Te Rashba in his ora HaAdam (III:7) explains ha he prohibiion was enaced only wih regards o oods  whose saus as edible iems is deermined by he use o fire.
 
3
YUTORAH IN PRINT • A PROJECT OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY’S CENTER FOR THE JEWISH FUTURE
 Vayishlach 5774
Download thousands of audio shiurim and articles at www.yutorah.org 
Rashi in Beizah (16a, s.v. ein bahem) assers ha he ac o cooking does no conribue anyhing imporan o he basic naure o he ood i i can be eaen raw in any case, and he Ran here (8b in Ri, s.v. im zela’an nachri) adds ha he concern o social ineracion wih he non-Jew is hus no he same, since his role in preparing he ood is inconsequenial.Te Gemara in Avodah Zarah (ibid.) hen presens anoher limiaion o he prohibiion agains eaing oods cooked by a non-Jew, ruling ha he resricion applies only o he ype o ood which is fi o be eaen a a royal able, ha is, a a sae dinner or banque. Te Rambam (Hilcho Ma’achalo Asuro 17:15) wries ha since he purpose o his enire prohibiion is o minimize social inimacy  beween Jews and non-Jews, i applies only o he kinds o ood which one would ordinarily serve o guess. Alhough hese wo limiaions appear independenly in ha Gemara, Rabbeinu am is cied in osao here (s.v. ika beinaihu) as ruling ha boh are indeed acceped, because we ollow he lenien posiion in maters like his which are Rabbinic in origin. Te Rambam oo (Hilcho Ma’achalo Asuro 17:14-15) rules ha only oods which are no edible raw and which are fi o be served a a royal able may no be eaen when cooked by a non-Jew; he Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh Deah 113:1) likewise rules accordingly.In ligh o he above, an ineresing quesion may be raised concerning drinking coffee prepared by a non-Jew: would i  be subjec o his prohibiion agains consuming somehing cooked by a non-Jew? (Te assumpion here is ha here are, o course, no non-Kosher ingrediens, which can be a problem wih cerain specially flavored coffees.) Te Gemara in Avodah Zarah (37b) indicaes ha waer is he prooypical example o an iem which does no change undamenally  by being cooked, and is hus no orbidden i cooked by a non-Jew. osao earlier here (31b s.v. vearvaihu) asser ha  beer, which is essenially waer mixed wih various grains and  brewed ogeher, has he same saus as waer regarding his prohibiion o ood cooked by a non-Jew jus as he berachah recied beore he consumpion o beer, despie he grain conen, is shehakol, he same as ha or waer. In boh cases, he oher ingrediens are considered secondary o he waer. Based on his idea, he Pri Chadash (Yoreh Deah 114:4) rules ha he same is rue o coffee, which he holds may be drunk even i prepared by a non-Jew because he coffee beans are considered secondary o he waer, and waer is no subjec o he prohibiion o Bishul Akum.Tis ruling is no universally agreed o, however; he eshuvo Panim Me’iro (2:62), or example, challenges his conclusion. Te Pichei eshuvah (Yoreh Deah 114:1) agrees ha one should be sringen, i possible, especially in view o he ac ha coffee is cerainly served a a royal  banque, and he Yad Ephraim (commening on he az, ibid. No. 1) wries ha one should no make a habi o drinking coffee in a non-Jewish environmen (see also Shu” Radvaz 3:537). Te Chida, in his Shiurei Berachah (Yoreh Deah 113:3) quoes ha he AriZal did no drink coffee which was manuacured by a non-Jew and he wries ha even hose  who allow i do so only as long as he coffee is no drunk as par o a social gahering ogeher wih non-Jews; his later poin is made as well in Shu” Halacho Keano (1:9). Moreover, he Chochma Adam (66:14) raises he issue o he Kashru saus o he “exras” ha are cusomarily added o coffee, such as milk, which can someimes be a problem, and he Noda BeYehudah (Mahadura Kamma, Yoreh Deah No. 36) brings up he concern o wha kind o uensil is used o make or serve he coffee in, as oher Kashru issues may hen become relevan. Rav Ovadyah Yose (Shu” Yechaveh Da’a 4:42) deals wih ha issue a some lengh, concluding ha here is room o be sringen i he coffee is made or served by he non-Jew in a porcelain or ceramic mug and no a glass or a disposable cup. Bu he Chaam Soer, in his commenary on he Gemara in Avodah Zarah (31b, s.v. sheichar shel nochrim), acceps he lenien posiion, poining ou ha wih regards o coffee (as opposed, perhaps, o oher brewed drinks), he ground beans are no compleely absorbed ino he waer, bu are raher lef behind a he end o he brewing process. Only he flavor o he beans is absorbed; in essence, hen, he final produc is merely flavored waer, and hus has he saus o waer or Bishul Akum purposes. Te Aruch HaShulchan (Yoreh Deah 113:22) concurs, saing ha he exure o he produc is no impaced here by he cooking process. Te Darkei eshuvah (Yoreh Deah 113:2) affirms ha he majoriy o auhoriies accep he lenien posiion here and he adds ha even he  AriZal was ollowing a personal sringency, no mean or he general populaion (see also Shu” Chikrei Lev, Yoreh Deah No. 36 and Ben Ish Chai, Year wo, Parasha Chuka No. 16). I should also be noed ha he Rama rules (Yoreh Deah 113:11) ha in any case o doub concerning he issue o Bishul Akum, we may accep he lenien view; his oo would seem o poin o ollowing hose who are lenien regarding coffee cooked by a non-Jew. Indeed, as documened by Rav Ovadyah Yose in he eshuvah cied earlier, he common pracice hroughou he Jewish world is cerainly o allow he drinking o coffee made by a non-Jew, in accordance wih he leniencies presened above.

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