sailor,Vasco-da-gama reached Calicut on thewestern coast of India, in 1498. He was receivedby Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut. This paved theway for establishing their settlement.
The sea route discovered by Vasco-da-gama is aturning point in the history of India
was appointed as the firstgovernor for the Portuguese settlements in India. He wanted to makethe portuguese,
the masters of Indian Ocean
. This policy is knownas the
“Blue Water Policy”
Alfonso de Albuquerque (1509-1515)
was appointed as thesecond governor. He laid the real foundation for the portuguese powerin India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur, whichbecame their headquaters in India.
Growth of the Portuguese:
Over the time, the Portuguese obtainedtrading rights at Nagapattinam from the Sevappa Nayak of Tanjore.A Portuguese fleet arrived in 1533 and occupied the port towns likeNagapattinam, and Tuticorin. Santhome in Chennai was also one of the Portuguese settlements. Madurai Nayak attempted to send thePortuguese away from India, but failed.
Causes for the decline of the Portuguese Power in India:a.Portugal was a small country. It could not control a bigcountry like India.b.The Portuguese merchants were rarely honest.c.The Dutch and the English became the strong rivals tothe Portuguese in India.2. Coming of the Dutch:
The Dutch traders came from Holland. They set up a factory atDevanampatnam in 1608. Towns such as Karaikal, Pulicat andNagapattinam on the East coast were captured by them. They alsoobtained Santhome from the French. They fortified all their settlements.In 1689 Nagapattinam was made the seat of Dutch Government.
Causes for the failure of the Dutch:a.The Dutch indulged in slave trade and entered into intriguesin the courts. These activities made them unpopular.b.The Dutch had to yield their position in India to the Englishbecause of the British naval supremacy. They developedtrading contacts with Indonesia rather than with India.3. Coming of the English:
The English East India Company obtained Royal Charter from queenElizabeth on 31
December 1600 to trade with India. In 1639 FrancisDey obtained the site of Madras from the Governor of Chandragiri.the British possessions in the East. In 1681, the new settlements wereopened in Cuddalore and Portonova. Fort St.David was built atCuddalore.
4. Coming of the Danes:
The Danish East India Company was established in 1616 in Denmark.They founded a settlement at Tranquebar in Nagapattinam in 1620.Their merchants were not prominent. In the 19
century they sold
For the site the company wasto pay a small amount as annualrent.In 1640, Fort St.George wasbuilt at Madras. It was madethe Headquarters of English inthe East.In 1654, Madrasbecame the headquarters of all