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Tamil Nadu 8th Standard History

Tamil Nadu 8th Standard History

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Published by: India History Resources on Aug 10, 2009
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Tamil Nadu, a state of India, is also a land of great culture. It wasruled by many famous kings during the Sangam age. Their contributionto Tamilnadu’s culture and civilisation are very significant. The ancientTamils had trade links with Greeks and the Romans. More over, theVenician traveller, Marco-Polo during the reign of II Pandian Empirevisited the then Tamilnadu. He gave a good account about thecommercial goods like spices, cotton, silk etc. This encouraged theother Europeans to have trade relations with Tamilnadu.In 1453, the Turks captured Constantinople and closed theMediterranian sea route. So the Europeans had to discover a newsea route to Eastern Countries. Dicoveries of 15
and the 16
centuries paved the way for the Europeans to have trade relationswith the Eastern countries, particularly with India. Portugal and Spainencouraged their navigators to undertake sea voyages.
1. Coming of the Portuguese:
The Portuguese were first among the Europeans to discover a searoute to India. The king of Portugal, Henry- the navigator encouragedthe sailors to undertake the sea voyages. Consequently, a portuguese
Learning objectives
1 Acquires knowledge about the arrival of the Europeans.2 Understands the conflict between the English and the French.3 Acquires knowledge about the achievements of Robert Clive.
sailor,Vasco-da-gama reached Calicut on thewestern coast of India, in 1498. He was receivedby Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut. This paved theway for establishing their settlement.
The sea route discovered by Vasco-da-gama is aturning point in the history of India
Francisco-de-Almeida (1505-1509)
was appointed as the firstgovernor for the Portuguese settlements in India. He wanted to makethe portuguese,
the masters of Indian Ocean
. This policy is knownas the
“Blue Water Policy”
Alfonso de Albuquerque (1509-1515)
was appointed as thesecond governor. He laid the real foundation for the portuguese powerin India. In 1510, he captured Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur, whichbecame their headquaters in India.
Growth of the Portuguese:
Over the time, the Portuguese obtainedtrading rights at Nagapattinam from the Sevappa Nayak of Tanjore.A Portuguese fleet arrived in 1533 and occupied the port towns likeNagapattinam, and Tuticorin. Santhome in Chennai was also one of the Portuguese settlements. Madurai Nayak attempted to send thePortuguese away from India, but failed.
Causes for the decline of the Portuguese Power in India:a.Portugal was a small country. It could not control a bigcountry like India.b.The Portuguese merchants were rarely honest.c.The Dutch and the English became the strong rivals tothe Portuguese in India.2. Coming of the Dutch:
The Dutch traders came from Holland. They set up a factory atDevanampatnam in 1608. Towns such as Karaikal, Pulicat andNagapattinam on the East coast were captured by them. They alsoobtained Santhome from the French. They fortified all their settlements.In 1689 Nagapattinam was made the seat of Dutch Government.
Causes for the failure of the Dutch:a.The Dutch indulged in slave trade and entered into intriguesin the courts. These activities made them unpopular.b.The Dutch had to yield their position in India to the Englishbecause of the British naval supremacy. They developedtrading contacts with Indonesia rather than with India.3. Coming of the English:
The English East India Company obtained Royal Charter from queenElizabeth on 31
December 1600 to trade with India. In 1639 FrancisDey obtained the site of Madras from the Governor of Chandragiri.the British possessions in the East. In 1681, the new settlements wereopened in Cuddalore and Portonova. Fort St.David was built atCuddalore.
4. Coming of the Danes:
The Danish East India Company was established in 1616 in Denmark.They founded a settlement at Tranquebar in Nagapattinam in 1620.Their merchants were not prominent. In the 19
century they sold
For the site the company wasto pay a small amount as annualrent.In 1640, Fort St.George wasbuilt at Madras. It was madethe Headquarters of English inthe East.In 1654, Madrasbecame the headquarters of all
Fort St.George
their factories to the English due to the irregular supply of money andarrival of ships from their home country. They lost their influence aswell as interest.
5. Coming of the French :
The French East India Company was founded in the year 1664.The French seized Santhome near Madras, but surrendered the sameto the Dutch. In 1674, Francis Martin obtained a small village of Pondicherry from the Sultan of Bijapur. In 1699, the French lostPondicherry to the Dutch. But it was restored by the Treaty of Ryswick.In 1701 it became the headquarters of the French possessions in India.The French occupied Mahe on the Malabar coast in 1725 and Karaikalin 1739, from the Marathas of Tanjore .
In the beginning of the 18
century the French and the English werepowerful in India. The English established their supremacy in Madras,Calcutta, and Bombay. The French had their settlement at Pondicherry.Both of them wanted to establish their authority in India. This resultedin the outbreak of Carnatic wars.
The first carnatic war (1746 - 1748):Causes:
In 1744 the war of Austrian succession broke out in Europebetween Austria and Prussia. While the French supported Prussia,the English stood by the side of Austria. Both of them were eager toextend their trade relations in India. Dupleix the French governor of Pondicherry wanted to drive away the English from India.
Course of the war:
Dupleix marched towards Madras where hedefeated the English naval fleet and captured Madras. The Englishmade a complaint to Anwar-ud-din the Nawab of Carnatic. TheNawab ordered Dupleix to return Fort St.George to the British. ButDupleix did not obey. Anwar-ud-din sent a large army to recoverMadras (Chennai) from Dupleix. But the Nawab’s forces weredefeated by the French at Santhome near Adayar in 1746. The Frenchforces plundered Madras.The French tried to capture Fort St.David at Cuddalore. But MajorLawrence, the British general defended it. Though the French failedto capture the fort, the war proved the might of the French and theability of Dupleix.
The first carnatic war came to an end by the treaty of Aile-La-chappelle in 1748 and settlement was reached between Englishand French in the Carnatic Coast. The French left and the English gotback Madras.
The Second Carnatic war (1749 - 1754):Causes:
The Nizam of Hyderabad died in 1748. His son NazirJung became the Nizam. Muzzafur Jung his nephew opposed him.Anwar-ud-din , the Nawab of Arcot opposed his uncle, Chanda Sahib.Muzzafur Jung and Chanda Sahib joined together and sought the helpof the French. The dispute for the throne of Hyderabad and Arcotwere the causes for the war.
Course of the war:
The French army joined the army of ChandaSahib and Muzzafur Jung near Arcot in 1749. Anwar-ud-din wasdefeated and killed in the war. Chanda Sahib became the Nawab of Carnatic. He rewarded Dupleix by giving the villages of Valudavoor,Villianoor and Bahur near Pondicherry..Anwar-ud-din’s son Mohammed Ali escaped to Tiruchirapalli andtook refuge in the Fort of Tiruchirapalli. It was beseiged by ChandaSahib. Mohammed Ali sought the help of the English to save him andattack Arcot.Robert Clive an army officer of the English attacked Arcot. ChandaSahib sent an army from Tiruchirapalli to capture Arcot. But Robert

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