Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Chala

Chala

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3 |Likes:

More info:

Published by: Daniel Álvarez Malo on Nov 12, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/12/2013

pdf

text

original

 
BUKHARAN
JEWS
History Language
Literature Culture
Collection
of
Articles
Edited
y
Chana
Tolmas
Israel
2006
1
1 \
 
a
Giora
Fuzailov
The
System
of
Succession
n:
the
ukharan
Rabbinate 1790-1917
65
...
a lion lays on it. See Tractate
Shavuot
p.22a and Rashi's
comn1entary
66
The king's seal, a very important authorization.
67
The Sephardi Chief Rabbi, Rabbi Ya'akov Shaul Elyashar.
68
Safed, 1870. He served for a number
of
years as rabbi
of
Bukhara and was an emissary
of
the community to a number
of
other communities.
69. I
do
not know who he
was
)
70
Son
of
Rabbi Pinhas
ha-katan ,
the leader
of
the community.
71
One
of
the sages
of
the yeshivah.
72
Rabbi Hizkiyah's brother and son of Rabbi Yizhak Ha-Cohen Rabin. Leader
of
the Bukharan Jewish community. He was murdered
by
the Bolsheviks
n
1920.
73.
Zion ben Rabbi Pinhas ha-katan
74.
One
of
the wealthy members
of
the community. He.built the palace
n
the Bukharan quarter at the beginning of the
20th
century.
See
Fuzailov,
Mi-bukhara
p
350
}
r
110
Reprinted with pettnission from
SHVUT
6
(22) 1997 pp. 57-78.
Studies in Russian
and East
European Jewish History
and
Culture. Tel
viv
University. Diaspora Research Institute. Ben-Gurion University
of
he Negev. Ben-Gurion Research Center
Reprinted with some changes
and
additions
(
ntroduction
The history
of
the Bukharan Jews who were converted to Islam (the Chalah) remains almost unknown till today. Although many publications on the history
of uk-
haran Jews devoted a few lines
to
Jewish converts to
Islam~
most
of
their authors, lacking a sufficient number
of
ehab ~
source~,
only mention the problem and attempt to detennme the tune frame
of
the conversions. Yet, there are several works
of
limited scientific interest on the problem.
I.
Babakhanov
1
briefly reported about the history
of
the Chalah on the basis
of
oral reports and described their
reli~ious
rites. The same issues were discussed in greater detatl by
p
S_ukharev~
in her monograph
on
the history
of
Bukhara, whtch descnbed the methods used in converting Bukharan Jews to Islam and areas in the city
of
Bukhara where the Chalah lived. M. Zand' s article presented evi-
 ll
 
Albert Kaganovich The
Muslim
Jews-
Cbalab
n
Central Asia 1865-1917
dence about the areas
of
the Bukhara emirate and its capital Bukhara
in
which the Chalah had settled, and reported data about their mid-nineteenth-century population.
3
The almost complete absence
of
sources
on
the history
of
Muslim Jews
in
Central Asia
m ke~
it
impossible to fortn a complete picture
of
the conversion
of
Central Asian Jews to Islam and their subsequent legal status and social circumstances. But the documents
of
the Tsarist period discovered by the present author in the Central A.rchive
of
Uzbekistan allow us to trace a specific period
in
the history
of
he Chalah.
1.
The
Chalah
before
the
Russian conquest .
of
Central
Asia
Jews settled
in
Central Asia even before
it
was con
quered by the
Arabs.
With the
advent
of
Islam,
the
so
called laws
of
Caliph Omar
II (717-720 C.E.)
4
were
extended
to apply to the Jews. According to
the~e
restrictive laws,
which remained
valid
in
Central
Asia
for
over
one
thousand
years,
Jews
were obligated to
wear
special clothes to distinguish
them
from .the t:Auslims;
Jewish
homes
and
shops
had
to
be
lower In
height than those
of
their
Muslim
neighbors;
and Jews had to pay
a poll
tax
jizya)
from
the time they
reached the age
of
thirteen.
In
addition,
Jews were not
allowed
to have more than
one synagogue
per
town, ride
on
horseback
in
town own bath
houses, sell wine
or
strong liquor to
' 0
the
Muslims,
or
testify
in court
against Muslims,
even
0
h
0
c
5
In t
eir
1avor. Furthern1ore, Central
Asian Jews
were subject
to
severe punishments, including death, for violating any
of
these
laws. Evidence
by
several
Muslims
was suffi
cient
for the accusation
against
a
Jew
to
be
considered 112
Albert Kaganovich The Muslim
Jews-
Cbalab In Central Asia
1865 1917
valid.
6
Nevertheless, before the punishment (especially
the
death penalty)
was put
into effect, the accused
Bukharan
Jews was offered
the
choice
of
converting to Islam
a.r;td
thus
ob~aining
absolute pardon.
7
Promoting the conversiOn
of
an mfidel to Islam was considered a deed that found
f~vor
in the eyes
of
God and merited great re
spec~
and
prms_e
from fellow Muslims; indeed, it was valued so highly that It
eve~
dill_linished the sin ofperjury.
8
. Bukharan
Jewish
literature
and
oral tradition con
tam
some. examples
of
great courage
and
spiritual strength displayed
by Jews
who were convicted and
~xecuted
because
they refused
to convert.
9
At
the same time,
ho~ever
some
Jews
facing
the
death penalty
or other pumshments
were forced to convert.
10
There were also
~ases
of
voluntary conversion to Islam due to the
seventy
of
the restrictive legislation
and
the enticement
of
lavish promises.
11
The Muslim
missionaries preferred to achieve conversion to Islam
of
those
Jews
who were prominent in the community
by
non-threatening
12
Th
means. Is
¥amed
the promoters
higher
honors
a~ ng
the Muslims,
on the
one hand, while creating a V
IVId
propaganda tool that could be used to influence t
he
res_t
of
the Community. The conversion to Islam was
f
onnal~zed
by the Muslim judge,
kazi
Every
new
convert was
_giVen
a Muslim robe and a turban which nonMushms were not allowed to wear. A Muslim supervisor was attached to every
new
convert; his duty was to advise the
new
convert about religious matters and to make sure
th
at he was
o~serving
religious rites correctly.
13
In
certam
cases, the
converts'
families were also declared to
be
converts to Islam;
14
in
others, however, husbands
had
to divorce their wives and were subsequently separated from their families and evicted 113

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->