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Combustion 

Combustion 

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Published by Ram Krishna Singh

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Published by: Ram Krishna Singh on Aug 10, 2009
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01/24/2013

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Lecturer:
 
Ram
 
Chandra
 
Sapkota
 
|
 
Note
 
prepared
 
by
 
Surya
 
Narayan
 
Mandal
 
1
Combustion
Combustion
 
is
 
a
 
chemical
 
process
 
in
 
which
 
a
 
substance
 
reacts
 
rapidly
 
with
 
oxygen
 
and
 
gives
 
off 
 
heat.
 
The
 
original
 
substance
 
is
 
called
 
FUEL,
 
and
 
the
 
source
 
of 
 
oxygen
 
is
 
called
 
the
 
OXYDISER.
 
For
 
combustion
 
FUEL,
 
OXYDISER
 
and
 
HEAT
 
must
 
be
 
present.
 
As
 
a
 
result
 
of 
 
combustion
 
EXHAUST
 
are
 
created
 
and
 
HEAT
 
are
 
produced.
 
We
 
can
 
control
 
or
 
stop
 
the
 
combustion
 
by
 
controlling
 
the
 
amount
 
of 
 
fuel
 
or
 
the
 
amount
 
of 
 
oxygen
 
or
 
source
 
of 
 
heat.
 
Reactants
 
are
 
the
 
components
 
that
 
exist
 
before
 
the
 
reaction
 
of 
 
a
 
combustion
 
process.
 
Products
 
are
 
the
 
components
 
that
 
exist
 
after
 
the
 
reaction.
 
Why
 
study
 
Combustion?
 
1.
 
Production
 
and
 
reduction
 
of 
 
hostile
 
fires
 
which
 
annually
 
kill
 
over
 
thousands
 
of 
 
people
 
and
 
leave
 
many
 
thousands
 
more
 
with
 
life
 
long
 
physical
 
and
 
psychological
 
scars.
 
2.
 
Reduction
 
of 
 
harmful
 
liquid
 
waste
 
matter
 
which
 
are
 
slowly
 
but
 
surely
 
damaging
 
the
 
civilization
 
that
 
grew
 
to
 
depend
 
on
 
combustion.
 
3.
 
It
 
promotes
 
to
 
design
 
of 
 
efficient
 
and
 
safe
 
furnace
 
to
 
dispose
 
wastes.
 
4.
 
It
 
lets
 
us
 
to
 
improve
 
efficiency
 
of 
 
chemical
 
energy
 
resources.
 
5.
 
Innovation
 
methods
 
to
 
extract
 
energy
 
from
 
sources
 
which
 
are
 
uneconomical
 
before.
 
Stoichiometry
 
Stoichiometry
 
air
 
is
 
the
 
quantity
 
of 
 
air
 
required
 
to
 
burn
 
a
 
unit
 
quantity
 
of 
 
fuel
 
completely
 
with
 
no
 
oxygen
 
appearing
 
in
 
the
 
product
 
of 
 
combustion.
 
Air
 
contains
 
oxygen
 
by
 
mass
 
23.2%
 
and
 
by
 
volume
 
21%.
 
Also
 
air
 
contains
 
Nitrogen
 
by
 
mass
 
76.8%
 
and
 
by
 
volume
 
79%.
 
Stoichiometric
 
Combustion
 
Equations:
 
Take
 
an
 
example
 
of 
 
combustion
 
of 
 
carbon
 
with
 
oxygen
 
 
Lecturer:
 
Ram
 
Chandra
 
Sapkota
 
|
 
Note
 
prepared
 
by
 
Surya
 
Narayan
 
Mandal
 
2
C
 
+
 
O
2
 
=
 
CO
2
.
 
This
 
is
 
balanced
 
equation.
 
Here
 
carbon
 
and
 
oxygen
 
are
 
called
 
reactants
 
and
 
CO
2
 
is
 
product.
 
This
 
is
 
called
 
Stoichiometric
 
Combustion
 
Equations.
 
Next
 
Example:
 
H
2
 
+
 
O
2
 
=
 
H
2
O.
 
This
 
is
 
unbalanced
 
equation.
 
2
 
H
2
 
+
 
O
2
 
=
 
2
 
H
2
O.
 
This
 
is
 
balanced
 
equation,
 
which
 
is
 
called
 
Stoichiometric
 
Combustion
 
Equations.
 
Third
 
Example:
 
C
6
H
14
 
+
 
O
2
 
=
 
CO
2
 
+
 
H
2
O.
 
Which
 
is
 
unbalanced
 
equation.
 
2
 
C
6
H
14
 
+
 
19
 
O
2
 
=
 
12
 
CO
2
 
+
 
14
 
H
2
O.
 
Which
 
is
 
balanced
 
equation
 
which
 
is
 
called
 
Stoichiometric
 
Combustion
 
Equations.
 
Analysis
 
on
 
mass
 
basis:
 
Let
 
us
 
take
 
an
 
example.
 
2
 
H
2
 
+
 
O
2
 
=
 
2
 
H
2
O
 
This
 
equation
 
says
 
that
 
4
 
mass
 
of 
 
H2
 
combined
 
with
 
32
 
mass
 
of 
 
O2
 
to
 
produce
 
36
 
mass
 
of 
 
H2O.
 
i.e.
 
1
 
mass
 
of 
 
H
2
 
+
 
8
 
mass
 
of 
 
O
2
 
=
 
9
 
mass
 
of 
 
H
2
O.
 
1
 
kg
 
H
2
 
+
 
8
 
kg
 
O
2
 
=
 
9
 
kg
 
H
2
O
 
if 
 
unit
 
is
 
kg.
 
Oxygen
 
is
 
combined
 
in
 
air
 
and
 
is
 
23.2%
 
by
 
mass.
 
So
 
the
 
8
 
kg
 
O2
 
=
 
8kg/0.232
 
=
 
34.5
 
kg
 
air.
 
It
 
means
 
N
2
 
contains
 
34.5
8
 
=
 
26.5
 
kg.
 
Analysis
 
on
 
volume
 
basis:
 
It
 
is
 
based
 
on
 
Avogadro’s
 
Law
 
which
 
states
 
that
 
 
equal
 
volume
 
of 
 
different
 
gases
 
at
 
same
 
temperature
 
and
 
pressure
 
contain
 
the
 
same
 
number
 
of 
 
molecules”.
 
2
 
H
2
O
 
+
 
O
2
 
=
 
2
 
H
2
O
 
That
 
is,
 
1
 
volume
 
of 
 
H
2
 
+
 
0.5
 
volume
 
of 
 
O
2
=
 
1
 
volume
 
of 
 
H
2
O.
 
 
Lecturer:
 
Ram
 
Chandra
 
Sapkota
 
|
 
Note
 
prepared
 
by
 
Surya
 
Narayan
 
Mandal
 
3
If 
 
the
 
volume
 
is
 
derived
 
in
 
m3,
 
1
 
m
3
 
H
2
 
+
 
0.5
 
m
3
 
O2
 
=
 
1
 
m
3
 
of 
 
H
2
O.
 
0.5/0.21
 
=
 
2.38
 
m
3
 
air.
 
Amount
 
of 
 
N
2
 
=
 
2.38
0.5
 
=1.88
 
m
3
 
N
2
.
 
Stoichiometric
 
or
 
theoretical
 
air
 
:
It
 
is
 
minimum
 
amount
 
of 
 
air
 
which
 
supplies
 
the
 
required
 
amount
 
of 
 
oxygen
 
for
 
complete
 
combustion.
 
Molar
 
Mass:
The
 
mass
 
of 
 
one
 
mole
 
of 
 
a
 
substance
 
is
 
called
 
molar
 
mass.
 
It
 
is
 
assumed
 
that
 
the
 
atmospheric
 
air
 
is
 
the
 
mixture
 
of 
 
N
2
 
and
 
O
2
 
in
 
the
 
mole
 
ratio
 
of 
 
79:21.
 
One
 
mole
 
of 
 
air
 
represents
 
0.79
 
mole
 
of 
 
N
2
 
and
 
0.21
 
mole
 
of 
 
oxygen.
 
Now,
 
Molar
 
mass
 
of 
 
N
2
 
=
 
28
 
X
 
10
3
 
kg.
 
Molar
 
mass
 
of 
 
O
2
 
=
 
32
 
X
 
10
3
 
kg.
 
Molar
 
mass
 
of 
 
air
 
=
 
0.79X28X10
3
 
+
 
0.21X32X10
3
 
=
 
29X10
3
 
kg.
 
1
 
Kmol
 
O2
 
+
 
3.76
 
Kmol
 
N2
 
=
 
4.76
 
Kmol
 
air
 
Air
Fuel
 
Ratio:
It
 
is
 
the
 
ratio
 
of 
 
the
 
mass
 
of 
 
air
 
to
 
the
 
mass
 
of 
 
fuel
 
for
 
a
 
combustion
 
process.
 
That
 
is
 
     


 
Where
 
m
 
=
 
N
 
X
 
M
 
=
 
Number
 
of 
 
moles
 
X
 
Molar
 
Mass.
 

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