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Pastoralism in the New Millenium

Pastoralism in the New Millenium

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Published by Filip Tesař

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Published by: Filip Tesař on Nov 13, 2013
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‘You can’t go home again’
Pastoralism in the new millennium Roger Blench Mallam Dendo 8, Guest Road Cambridge CB1 2AL United Kingdom Voice/ Fax. 0044-(0)1223-560687 Mobile worldwide (00-44)-(0)7967-696804 E-mail R.Blench@odi.org.uk http://www.rogerblench.info/RBOP.htm This version: Cambridge, 09 January 2006 This paper was prepared with financial support from the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of the FAO.
Published as; 2001. Blench, R.M. Pastoralism in the new millennium. FAO: Animal Health and Production Series, No 150.
 
 i TABLE OF CONTENTS
BOXES..............................................................................................................................................................................3
 
SUMMARY......................................................................................................................................................................4
 
PART I..............................................................................................................................................................................1
 
1. INTRODUCTION: PASTORAL SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE.................................................................................1
 
1.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................................1
 
1.2 Classifying pastoral systems..................................................................................................................................1
 
1.3 Pastoral species.......................................................................................................................................................5
 
1.4 Pastoral enterprises................................................................................................................................................6
 
1.4.1 Nomadism.........................................................................................................................................................6
 
1.4.2 Transhumance...................................................................................................................................................7
 
1.4.3 Agropastoralism................................................................................................................................................7
 
1.4.4 Enclosed systems and ranching........................................................................................................................8
 
1.4.5 Pastoralism and trade........................................................................................................................................8
 
1.4.6 Pastoralism and warfare....................................................................................................................................9
 
1.4.7 Pastoralism and hunting..................................................................................................................................11
 
1.4.8 Pastoralism and fishing...................................................................................................................................11
 
1.4.9 Pastoralists and non-pastoral species..............................................................................................................12
 
1.5 History and origins of pastoralism.....................................................................................................................12
 
1.6 Sources of information on pastoralism...............................................................................................................13
 
1.7 The discourse of pastoralism...............................................................................................................................14
 
2. GRAZING AND NUTRITION.................................................................................................................................15
 
2.1 Rangelands: opportunistic use of patchy resources..........................................................................................15
 
2.2 Silvo-pastoral systems..........................................................................................................................................19
 
2.3 Supplementary feeding........................................................................................................................................19
 
3. BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................20
 
3.1 Breeding and reproduction in pastoral herds....................................................................................................20
 
3.1.1 Controlling bloodlines....................................................................................................................................20
 
3.1.2 Castration........................................................................................................................................................21
 
3.2 Hi-tech
ex situ
strategies......................................................................................................................................21
 
4. ANIMAL HEALTH...................................................................................................................................................22
 
4.1 Pastoralists and the health of their animals.......................................................................................................22
 
4.2 Traditional remedies............................................................................................................................................23
 
4.3 Trypanosomosis and the campaigns to eradicate tsetse....................................................................................24
 
5. WHAT DO PASTORALISTS PRODUCE AND HOW DO THEY MARKET THEM?.....................................25
 
5.1 Dairy products......................................................................................................................................................25
 
5.2 Meat preservation................................................................................................................................................27
 
5.3 Hides, skins and other products..........................................................................................................................28
 
5.4 Work animals.......................................................................................................................................................28
 
5.5 Selling pastoral products.....................................................................................................................................31
 
5.6 Worldwide demand for protein..........................................................................................................................32
 
5.7 Globalisation of the trade in livestock products................................................................................................33
 
5.8 Evaluating productivity.......................................................................................................................................34
 
6. MANAGEMENT AND THE MITIGATION OF VULNERABILITY.................................................................34
 
6.1 Migration..............................................................................................................................................................34
 
6.2 Changing herd composition................................................................................................................................35
 
6.3 Predation...............................................................................................................................................................35
 
6.4 Theft......................................................................................................................................................................36
 
7. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS OF PASTORALISM...................................................................36
 
7.1 Social structures...................................................................................................................................................36
 
7.2 Role of women in pastoral society.......................................................................................................................37
 
7.3 Pastoral identities.................................................................................................................................................38
 
7.4 Land tenure and the CPR debate.......................................................................................................................38
 
8. PASTORALISM AND THE STATE........................................................................................................................39
 
8.1 The edge eats the centre.......................................................................................................................................39
 
8.2 Pastoralists and national borders.......................................................................................................................39
 
PART II. PASTORALISM AND POLICY ISSUES...................................................................................................40
 
9. PASTORAL POPULATIONS AND RANGELANDS............................................................................................40
 
9.1 Competition with foragers...................................................................................................................................40
 
 
 ii
9.2 Pastoralists and the environment........................................................................................................................41
 
9.3 Competing uses of the world’s rangelands.........................................................................................................44
 
9.3.1 Pastoralists and the exploitation of mineral resources....................................................................................44
 
9.3.2 Wildlife and conservation issues....................................................................................................................45
 
10. BIODIVERSITY......................................................................................................................................................48
 
10.1 Maintaining livestock biodiversity....................................................................................................................48
 
10.2 Maintaining rangeland biodiversity.................................................................................................................51
 
11. IMPROVING THE LIVELIHOODS OF PASTORALIST FAMILIES AND COMMUNITIES.....................52
 
11.1 Disaster management.........................................................................................................................................52
 
11.1.1 Drought and the management of climatic anomalies....................................................................................52
 
11.1.2 Early warning systems: Idea and reality......................................................................................................54
 
11.1.3 Security in pastoral zones............................................................................................................................55
 
11.2 Recovery strategies............................................................................................................................................56
 
11.2.1 Structural features of pastoralism.................................................................................................................56
 
11.2.2 Sedentarisation and land tenure....................................................................................................................56
 
11.2.3 Rethinking pastoral organisation..................................................................................................................59
 
11.2.4 Restocking....................................................................................................................................................61
 
11.2.5 Livestock banking.........................................................................................................................................62
 
11.2.6 Economic diversification..............................................................................................................................62
 
12. WHO SHOULD ADDRESS THESE POLICIES AND ISSUES?........................................................................63
 
12.1 Pastoralists in national, regional and global perspective................................................................................63
 
12.2 Key re-orientation of policy towards pastoralists............................................................................................63
 
12.2.1 Constructing policy: telling the truth............................................................................................................63
 
12.2.2 Rethinking policy clusters............................................................................................................................65
 
12.3 Who should be doing what?..............................................................................................................................66
 
12.3.1 Intervention versus information dissemination.............................................................................................66
 
12.3.2 Remedying uneven research.........................................................................................................................67
 
12.3.3 Practical support...........................................................................................................................................67
 
13. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................................................................68
 
13.1 Why has pastoralism survived?........................................................................................................................68
 
13.2 Key trends in twentieth century pastoralism...................................................................................................68
 
13.3 Where is pastoralism headed?..........................................................................................................................69
 
APPENDIX I: THE ORIGIN OF PASTORAL SPECIES.........................................................................................71
 
APPENDIX II: PASTORALISM WITH MONOGASTRIC SPECIES....................................................................73
 
Ducks and geese..........................................................................................................................................................73
 
APPENDIX III: WORLDWIDE TABLES OF PASTORAL PEOPLES..................................................................74
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................................................................................78
 
ELECTRONIC RESOURCES......................................................................................................................................99
 
UNDP..........................................................................................................................................................................99
 
USAID.........................................................................................................................................................................99
 
LINKS TO UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH CENTRES.....................................................................................99
 
RANGELANDS..............................................................................................................................................................99
 

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