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Table Of Contents

A Related Approach: Developing-Person-In-Context 203
Contributions to Human Developmental Psychology 343
Developmental Issues Revisited 424
Historical Progress of Developmental Theories 430
The Future of Developmental Theories 434
Introduction
1.What is a theory?
>What Is a Theory?
>What Is a Developmental Theory?
>Of What Value Is a Developmental Theory?
Organizing Information
Guiding Research
> What Main Issues of Developmental Psychology Do Theories Address?
1.What is the basic nature of humans?
What Is the Basic Nature of Humans?
>ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK
Piaget’s Cognitive-Stage Theory and the Neo-Piagetians
Genetic Epistemology
Biological Approach
Structuralism
Sensorimotor Period (Roughly Birth to 2 Years)
An Overview
>Memory
>Mechanisms of Development
Cognitive Organization
Cognitive Adaptation
Section Overview
>Position on Developmental Issues
Human Nature
>Applications
>Evaluation of the Theory
Strengths
Weaknesses
>Piaget’s Own Modifications of His Theory
>The Neo-Piagetians
Robbie Case
Kurt Fischer
Neo-Piagetian Themes
>Contemporary Research
Infants’ Advanced Competencies
Domain-Specific Concepts
Mechanisms of Development
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
>SUMMARY
>SUGGESTED READINGS
Freud’s and Erikson’s Psychoanalytic Theories
Freud
>Biographical Sketch
>General Orientation to the Theory
Dynamic Approach
Structural Approach
Stage Approach
Normal–Abnormal Continuum
Methodology
>Description of the Stages
Oral Stage (Roughly Birth to 1 Year)
Anal Stage (Roughly 1 to 3 Years)
Phallic Stage (Roughly 3 to 5 Years)
Genital Stage (Adolescence)
Erikson
Stage 1: Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Roughly Birth to 1 Year)
Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (Roughly 2 to 3 Years)
Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt (Roughly 4 to 5 Years)
Stage 4: Industry Versus Inferiority (Roughly 6 Years to Puberty)
Stage 8: Integrity Versus Despair (Late Adulthood)
Child-in-Activity-in-Cultural-Context as the Unit of Study
Zone of Proximal Development
Tools Provided by a Culture Mediate Intellectual Functioning
>Examples of Vygotskian—Sociocultural Research
Private Speech and Inner Speech
Development of Concepts
Qualitative Versus Quantitative Development
What Develops
>A Related Approach: Developing-Person- in-Context
Collaborative Problem Solving
Research Across Cultures
Concluding Comments About Contemporary Vygotskian–Sociocultural Research
Social Learning Theory
>History of the Theory
Learning Theory
Observational Learning
Self-Efficacy and Agency
>Examples of Developmental Research: Moral Judgments and Gender Roles
Moral Judgments and Behavior
Gender-Role Development
Information-Processing Theory
Humans as Information-Processing Systems
Task Analysis
>Major Developmental Approaches
Memory
Metamemory
Strategies: Acquisition, Variability, and Choice
Rules for Problem Solving
Intelligence
Ethology and Other Evolutionary Theories
Species-Specific Innate Behavior
Learning Predispositions
>Contributions to Human Developmental Psychology
Peer Interaction
Problem Solving
Gibson’s Ecological Theory of Perceptual Development
Ecological Approach: Affordances
Information Is Specified in Stimulation
Humans as Active Perceivers
>Developmental Trends
Optimization of Attention
>What Infants Learn About
Interaction with Objects
Nature Versus Nurture
Contemporary Minitheories and Emerging Approaches
>The Theory Theory
>Modularity Nativism
>Dynamic-Systems Theory
>Critical Psychology: Are Theories of Development Gendered?
>SUGGESTED READING
>Developmental Issues Revisited
>A Need for Better Theoretical Accounts of Mechanisms of Development
>Historical Progress of Developmental Theories
>The Future of Developmental Theories
>CONCLUSIONS
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Miller, P.(2011). Theories of Developmental Psychology. Woth Publishers

Miller, P.(2011). Theories of Developmental Psychology. Woth Publishers

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