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A Clifford Algebra Based Grand Unification Program of Gravity and the Standard Model : A Review Study

A Clifford Algebra Based Grand Unification Program of Gravity and the Standard Model : A Review Study

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Published by Kathryn Wilson
70 pages, submitted to the Canadian Journal of Physics

70 pages, submitted to the Canadian Journal of Physics

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Published by: Kathryn Wilson on Nov 15, 2013
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A Clifford Algebra Based GrandUnification Program of Gravity and theStandard Model : A Review Study
Carlos CastroCenter for Theoretical Studies of Physical SystemsClark Atlanta, GA. 30314October 2013
Abstract
A Clifford
 Cl
(5
,
) Unified Gauge Field Theory formulation of Confor-mal Gravity and
 U 
(4)
×
(4)
×
(4) Yang-Mills in 4
D
, is reviewed, alongwith its implications for the Pati-Salam group
 S
(4)
×
SU 
(2)
L
×
SU 
(2)
R
,and
 Trinification
 GUT models of 3 fermion generations based on thegroup
 SU 
(3)
 ×
SU 
(3)
L
 ×
SU 
(3)
R
. We proceed with a brief review of a unification program of 4
D
 Gravity and
 SU 
(3)
×
SU 
(2)
×
(1) Yang-Mills emerging from 8
D
 pure Quaternionic Gravity. A realization of 
 
8
in terms of the
 Cl
(16) =
 Cl
(8)
Cl
(8) generators follows, as a pream-ble to Tony Smith’s
 
8
 and
 Cl
(16) =
 Cl
(8)
Cl
(8) unification modelin 8
D
. The study of Chiral Fermions and Instanton Backgrounds in
CP
2
,
CP
3
related to the problem of obtaining 3 fermion generations isthoroughly studied. We continue with the evaluation of the couplingconstants and particle masses based on the geometry of bounded com-plex homogeneous domains and geometric probability theory. An analy-sis of neutrino masses, Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrixparameters and neutrino-mixing matrix parameters follows. We finalizewith some concluding remarks about other proposals for the unificationof Gravity and the Standard Model, like string,
 M,
 theory and Non-commutative and Nonassociative Geometry.
Keywords
: Clifford Algebras, Exceptional Algebras, Gravity, Yang-Mills, GrandUnification, Strings, M-Theory, Noncommutative, Nonassociative Geometry.
1 Introduction
Clifford, Division, Exceptional and Jordan algebras are deeply related and es-sential tools in many aspects in Physics [7], [8], [9] . Grand-Unification models1
 
in 4
D
 based on the exceptional
 
8
 Lie algebra have been known for some-time [1], [4]. The supersymmetric
 E 
8
 model has more recently been studied as afermion family and grand unification model [2]. The low-energy phenomenologyof superstring-inspired
 E 
6
 models has been reviewed by [6]. Lisi [62] proposeda
 E 
8
 unification model with gravity but it was plagued by many problems andcriticisms. Another controversial and problematic model was the
 E 
8
×
8
 modelof [63].Supersymmetric non-linear
σ
 models of Kahler coset spaces
 
8
SO
(10)
×
SU 
(3)
×
(1)
;
7
SU 
(5)
;
 
6
SO
(10)
×
(1)
 are known to contain three generations of quarks and lep-tons as (quasi) Nambu-Goldstone
 superfields
 [3] (and references therein). Thecoset model based on
 G
 =
 E 
8
 gives rise to 3 left-handed generations assigned tothe
 16
 multiplet of 
 SO
(10), and 1 right-handed generation assigned to the
 16
multiplet of 
 SO
(10). The coset model based on
 G
 =
 E 
7
 gives rise to 3 genera-tions of quarks and leptons assigned to the
 5
+
10
 multiplets of 
 S
(5), and aHiggsino (the fermionic partner of the scalar Higgs) in the
 5
 representation of 
SU 
(5).A Chern-Simons
 E 
8
 Gauge theory of Gravity, based on the octic
 E 
8
 invariantconstruction by [37], was proposed [35] as a unified field theory (at the Planckscale) of a Lanczos-Lovelock Gravitational theory with a
 E 
8
 Generalized Yang-Mills field theory which is defined in the 15
D
 boundary of a 16
D
 bulk space. Therole of the Clifford algebra
 Cl
(16) associated with a 16
D
 bulk was essential [35].In particular, it was discussed how an
 E 
8
 Yang-Mills in 8D, after a sequence of symmetry breaking processes based on the
 non
compact
 forms of exceptionalgroups as follows
 E 
8(
24)
 →
7(
5)
×
SU 
(2)
6(
14)
×
SU 
(3)
SO
(8
,
2)
×
(1), leads to a Conformal gravitational theory in 8
D
 based on gauging thenon-compact conformal group
 SO
(8
,
2) in 8
D
. Upon performing a Kaluza-Klein-Batakis [38] compactification on
CP 
2
, involving a nontrivial
torsion
whichbypasses the no-go theorems that one cannot obtain
 SU 
(3)
×
SU 
(2)
×
(1)from a Kaluza-Klein mechanism in 8
D
, leads to a Conformal Gravity-Yang-Mills unified theory based on the Standard Model group
 S
(3)
×
SU 
(2)
×
(1)in 4D.A candidate action for an Exceptional
 
8
 gauge theory of gravity in 8
D
was constructed [36]. It was obtained by recasting the
 
8
 group as the semi-direct product of 
 GL
(8
,R
) with a deformed Weyl-Heisenberg group associatedwith canonical-conjugate pairs of vectorial and antisymmetric tensorial gener-ators of rank two and three. Other actions were proposed, like the quartic
8
 group-invariant action in 8D associated with the Chern-Simons
 
8
 gaugetheory defined on the 7-dim boundary of a 8
D
 bulk. The
 
8
 gauge theory of gravity can be embedded into a more general extended gravitational theory inClifford spaces associated with the Clifford
 Cl
(16) algebra due to the fact that
8
 ⊂
Cl
(8)
Cl
(8) =
 Cl
(16).The aim of this work is to review a Clifford algebra based Grand Unificationprogram of Gravity and the Standard Model. The outline of this work goes asfollows. Section
2
is devoted to a thorough study of Clifford Algebras, ConformalGravity and
 U 
(4)
×
(4)
×
(4) Yang-Mills Unification [32]. It includes : (1) a2
 
Clifford algebra realization of the Conformal Group
 SO
(4
,
2),
 U 
(4) and how thepseudo-unitary algebras
 U 
(
 p,
) can be obtained from the unitary ones
 U 
(
 p
+
)via the Weyl unitary trick. (2) A study of Gravity, Trinification and Pati-SalamModels from
 Cl
(5
,
) Gauge Field Theories. (3) An embedding of 
 
(4) into
SO
(8)
 ⊂
 Cl
(8) via the use of Fermionic Oscillator Algebras will allow us toend the group-chain with
 SO
(10) which is a Grand-Unification (GUT) groupcandidate since it admits complex representations to describe chiral fermions in4
D
.In section
 3
 we briefly review how 4
D
 Gravity and
 SU 
(3)
×
SU 
(2)
×
(1)Yang-Mills emerges from 8
D
 Quaternionic Gravity [33]. A realization of 
 E 
8
 interms of 
 Cl
(16) =
 Cl
(8)
Cl
(8) generators follows in section
 4
. In section
 5
 adetailed analysis of the incorporation of Fermions is presented.Section
 6
 is devoted to Smith’s
 
8
 ⊂
 Cl
(8)
Cl
(8) algebra-based Unifi-cation Model in 8
D
. The Coleman-Mandula Theorem and Gauge Bosons asFermion Condensates are discussed along with an Octonionic Realization of 
GL
(8
,R
) [55] and the
 SU 
(3) Color Algebra of Quarks [57]. We proceed withthe Lagrangian construction in Smith’s Physics Model and an extensive analysisof chiral fermions, number of generations and instanton backgrounds in
 CP 
n
based on the work by [60].In section
 7
 a detailed study of Complex Geometric Domains, couplings,masses and parameters of the Standard Model is presented. The evaluation of the fine structure constant by Wyler [67], and the weak, strong couplings bySmith [28], [29] are performed via the Geometric Probability Theory formal-ism analysis as described explicitly by [34]. The Particle masses, Electroweakbosons, Higgs mass, the Leptons and Quarks masses, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, the neutrino masses and neutrino-mixing (PMNS) matrixparameters are obtained following the construction of [28], [29]. We also includea discussion of the lepton masses procedure by [74]. Section
 7
 ends with a dis-cussion on the other approaches to obtain the Physical Constants, like the oneby Beck [76].To conclude in section
 8
, we add some important remarks related to String(
M,
) theory and Noncommutative and Nonassociative Geometry.
2 Clifford Algebras and Conformal Gravity,
 U 
(4)
×
(4)
×
(4)
 Yang-Mills Unification
2.1 A Clifford algebra realization of the Conformal Group
SO
(4
,
2)
Te aim of this section is to explain the relationship between Clifford-algebra-valued Gauge Field Theories and Conformal Gravity [32]. By fixing some of thegauge symmetries and imposing some constraints one recovers ordinary gravity.We shall begin by showing how the conformal algebra in four dimensions admits3

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