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EXPERT TOPIC - CARP

EXPERT TOPIC - CARP

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Carp is one of the main species of China's aquaculture industry, forming 13 percent of its farmed fish output. Because of their wide adaptability, carp can be farmed in an extensive variety of regions. However, in recent years their quality in China has declined. With the blind pursuit of production volumes and backward steps in breeding management technology, many problems have appeared in carp aquaculture.
Carp is one of the main species of China's aquaculture industry, forming 13 percent of its farmed fish output. Because of their wide adaptability, carp can be farmed in an extensive variety of regions. However, in recent years their quality in China has declined. With the blind pursuit of production volumes and backward steps in breeding management technology, many problems have appeared in carp aquaculture.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Nov 15, 2013
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November | December 2013 EXPERT TOPIC - CARP
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
 
42 | INTERNATIONAL
AQUAFEED
| November-December 2013
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Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
CARP
EXPERT TOPIC
 
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China
Overview of the present situation of carp farming in China
by Wang Xin, Song Zhigang, Yang Yong, Guangzhou Hinter Biotechnology, Guangdong, China
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arp is one of the main species of China's aquaculture industry, forming 13 percent of its farmed fish output. Because of their wide adaptability, carp can be farmed in an extensive variety of regions. However, in recent years their quality in China has declined. With the blind pursuit of production volumes and backward steps in breeding management technology, many problems have appeared in carp aquaculture.
Biological characteristics
Common carp belongs to the taxonomic group Osteichthyes of the animal kingdom, in the Cyprinidae family of the Cypriniformes subclass. Carp live at the bottom of water bodies, and tend to stir them up in foraging activity. Common carp can quickly adapt to  the temperature and quality of water, and grow quickly at the same time (1 kg or more in a single year). Their breeding season is early April to early June, and reach sexual maturity after two years.Carp is a typically omnivorous fish, although  they can be carnivorous. Their feeding mode is deglutition. Carp fry mainly eat zooplankton, and later begin to eat benthos. When their body length reaches 7-17 cm, under natural conditions carp eat crustaceans, insect larvae, algae, plant tissue and so on. In the aquacul- ture industry farmers use compound feeds to provide their nutrition.
Distribution
Common carp grow quickly, have high output and a strong tolerance for envi-ronmental conditions, which means they can be cultivated widely from the north-ern provinces Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei and Shanxi, to the southern provinces Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou. As mentioned above, carp is one of the main species for Chinese aquaculture, making up 13 percent of total production volume.
Common species
The most common carp species in China are Jian carp, Yellow River carp, red carp and German mirror carp. All have similar nutritional requirements although fish farmers must bear certain differences in mind. German mirror carp typically exhibit higher feed con-versation ratios than the Yellow River or Jian varities, and consequently tend to enjoy a faster growth rate (reaching 1.25 kg after a year, rather than 1 kg). However, the disease resistance of German mirror carp is poor, and require higher water quality to be successfully farmed. For  these reasons, all three are viable aquacul- ture species, although German mirror carp enjoy higher and more stable prices in the marketplace.
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USA
Aquaculture carp threat to Great Lakes wildlife
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hough a popular species for farming in their own right, carp’s bottom-dwelling behaviour, tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions and omnivo-rous feeding habits also makes them an attractive candidate for integrated aquaculture systems.
Authorities in the Great Lakes region of the United States are now having to deal with the drawbacks of this hardiness, as Asian carp spe-cies originally imported to the southern states  to control vegetation in aquaculture and waste-water treatment have been found spawning as far north as the Sandusky River in Ohio.It is a well-established fact that the Mississippi River is infested with Asian carp, and one of those species, the grass carp, has made the jump to the  tributary river of Lake Erie. Although vegetation-eating grass carp do significant damage to aquatic habitats, scientists are particularly worried about  the prospect of bighead carp and silver carp joining  them. They require similar spawning conditions to  the species already in place, but as plankton feeders will out-compete and out-breed native fish.US environmental official John Goss has called for the renewal of the administration’s US$200 mil-lion “aggressive strategy” to keep the Great Lakes free of the invasive species. Given the threat to the US$7 billion sports fishing industry and US$234 million commercial fishery in both the USA and Canada, it’s time to cut the carp.
November-December 2013 | INTERNATIONAL
AQUAFEED
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