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Accounting Standard 2

Accounting Standard 2

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Published by: kamrantariq on Aug 11, 2009
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Statements of Accounting Standards(AS 2) Revised
Valuation of Inventories
(In this Accounting Standard, the standard portions have beenset in
bold italic
type. These should be read in the context of thebackground material which has been set in normal type, and inthe context of the 'Preface to the Statements of AccountingStandards'.)The following is the text of the revised Accounting Standard (AS)2, 'Valuation of Inventories', issued by the Council of the Instituteof Chartered Accountants of India. This revised Standardsupersedes Accounting Standard (AS) 2, 'Valuation oInventories', issued in June, 1981.The revised standard comes into effect in respect of accountingperiods commencing on or after 1.4.1999 and is mandatory innature.
A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the determinationof the value at which inventories are carried in the financialstatements until the related revenues are recognised. ThisStatement deals with the determination of such value, includingthe ascertainment of cost of inventories and any write-downthereof to net realisable value.
1. This Statement should be applied in accounting for inventories other than:(a) work in progress arising under constructioncontracts, including directly related service contracts(see Accounting Standard (AS) 7, Accounting foConstruction Contracts);
(b) work in progress arising in the ordinary course of business of service providers;(c) shares, debentures and other financiainstruments held as stock-in-trade; and (d) producers' inventories of livestock, agriculturaand forest products, and mineral oils, ores and gasesto the extent that they are measured at net realisablevalue in accordance with well established practices inthose industries.
2. The inventories referred to in paragraph 1 (d) aremeasured at net realisable value at certain stages oproduction. This occurs, for example, when agricultural cropshave been harvested or mineral oils, ores and gases have beenextracted and sale is assured under a forward contract or agovernment guarantee, or when a homogenous market existsand there is a negligible risk of failure to sell. These inventoriesare excluded from the scope of this Statement.
3. The following terms are used in this Statement withthe meanings specified: Inventories are assets:(a) held for sale in the ordinary course of business;(b) in the process of production for such sale; or (c) in the form of materials or supplies to beconsumed in the production process or in therendering of services.Net realisable value
is the estimated selling price in theordinary course of business less the estimated costs of 
completion and the estimated costs necessary to makethe sale.
4. Inventories encompass goods purchased and held forresale, for example, merchandise purchased by a retailer andheld for resale, computer software held for resale, or land andother property held for resale. Inventories also encompassfinished goods produced, or work in progress being produced,by the enterprise and include materials, maintenance supplies,consumables and loose tools awaiting use in the productionprocess. Inventories do not include machinery spares whichcan be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset andwhose use is expected to be irregular; such machinery sparesare accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS)10, Accounting for Fixed Assets.
Measurement of Inventories
5. Inventories should be valued at the lower of cosand net realisable value.
Cost of Inventories
6. The cost of inventories should comprise all costs of  purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Costs of Purchase
7. The costs of purchase consist of the purchase priceincluding duties and taxes (other than those subsequentlyrecoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities),freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable tothe acquisition. Trade discounts, rebates, duty drawbacks andother similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase.
Costs of Conversion

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