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PRST Monitoring Framework

PRST Monitoring Framework

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Published by JDStuster
PRST Monitoring Framework
PRST Monitoring Framework

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Published by: JDStuster on Nov 16, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 On 2 October 2013, the United Nations Security Council President issued a statement (S/PRST/2013/15) in which the Security Council expressed grave alarm at the significant and rapid deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Syria and noted with grave concern that, without urgent increased humanitarian action, the lives of several million Syrians in need of immediate humanitarian assistance will be at risk. The Presidential Statement provides a welcome framework for all parties to the conflict to improve their respect for international law relating to the protection of civilians and humanitarian access to all those in need. This paper seeks to identify some of the practical measures that the parties must take, with sustained support from Security Council members and other member states, to ensure the timely and effective implementation of the statement. As such it provides a monitoring tool for the Security Council to measure progress made by the parties and the impact of the Presidential Statement on the ground. The paper is organized as follows: Presidential Statement commitments and recommendations, current situation on the ground and targets which could be used to monitor positive changes on the ground.
Recognising the Syrian authorities’ primary responsibility to protect their
populations, the Security Council: condemns the wide-spread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Syrian authorities, as well as any human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law by armed groups; recalls that all obligations under international humanitarian law must be respected in all circumstances; urges all parties to immediately cease and desist from all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights; calls on all parties to fully respect their obligations under international humanitarian law and to take all appropriate steps to protect civilians.
Widespread occupation of civilian facilities
 (schools, hospitals, water stations) by military forces from all parties to the conflict.
Large-scale impact of conflict on public services
4,000 schools closed as a consequence of conflict;
60 per cent of public hospitals, 34 per cent of public health centres; 92 per cent of public ambulances and 70 per cent of pharmaceutical plants affected by conflict.
Widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Syrian authorities and human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law by armed groups reported by the International Independent Commission of Inquiry 
, including but not limited to reports of:
 2 failure to distinguish between civilians and combatants; indiscriminate attacks, and attacks against civilians and civilian objects; use of chemical weapons and the employment of weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare which are of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering attacks directed against civilian objects; and establishment of military positions in populated areas.
Lack of access to Syria for the International Independent Commission of Inquiry and OHCHR
 impeding the ability to monitor violations of human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to the conflict in Syria.
Regular reporting and monitoring of violations
 of international human rights and humanitarian law carried out by the International Independent Commission of Inquiry, OHCHR and the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (for the six grave child rights violations).
Proposed targets:
 Demilitarization of currently occupied civilian facilities by all parties to the conflict; Restoration of education, including supporting children back to learning and re-opening of schools; Restoration of health services in major population areas hardest hit by the conflict; Safe passage of patients; Restoration of basic infrastructure and services; Reduction in violations of IHL and human rights by all parties to the conflict including significant reduction of reported cases of violations of IHL/HR law (including gender-based violence) against civilians, including against children, women and other vulnerable groups. Command orders issued by armed groups banning child recruitment and use, release of children in their ranks, and turning away children wanting to join groups; Evacuation of civilians. Civilians allowed to leave and evacuated from identified besieged areas by humanitarian organizations.
The Security Council recalls that under international humanitarian law: the wounded and sick must receive, to the fullest extent practicable, and with the least possible delay medical care and attention required by their condition; and medical and humanitarian personnel, facilities and transport must be respected and protected. To this end, the Council urges free passage to all areas for medical personnel and supplies, including surgical items and medicine.
Restrictions imposed by the Syrian authorities on delivery of medical supplies over past six months
 include: medical supplies which could be used for surgical interventions (e.g. scissors, infusions, anaesthesia) not allowed into opposition-controlled areas; all convoys which include medical supplies to be
 3 accompanied by international staff; removal of medical items from humanitarian convoys by security services (e.g. removal of contents from diarrhoea kits); and requirement that WHO items be stored in Ministry of Health facilities (large amounts of life-saving medicines and supplies are stored in Ministry of Health warehouses in Damascus and Tartous).
In a positive development, in August and October 2013,
surgical supplies and medicines were successfully delivered to Idlib
and Ter’mallah in
Homs through inter-agency convoys
 At least 700,000 children have not been reached with essential vaccines and communicable diseases are spreading
rapidly due to poor hygiene and sanitation and lack of access to medical treatment in areas most affected by the conflict. For example, there are now reportedly at least 100,000 cases of leishmaniasis in Aleppo and in October 2013 there were reports of cases of polio in Deir ez Zor.
Proposed targets:
Distribution of medical, surgical and reproductive health supplies to hard-to-reach areas identified by the HCT; Nationwide polio vaccination campaign commenced and vaccinations procured for polio and measles vaccinations; Leishmaniasis elimination. Procurement of medicines/supplies and equipment to eliminate the transmission of leishmaniasis and ensure effective treatment for patients. Garbage collection support provided as needed.
The Security Council: urges all parties, in particular the Syrian authorities, to take all appropriate steps to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and all humanitarian actors engaged in humanitarian relief activities, to provide immediate humanitarian assistance to the affected people in Syria; urges the Syrian authorities to promptly facilitate safe and unhindered humanitarian access to people in need, through the most effective ways, including across conflict lines and, where appropriate, across borders from neighbouring countries in accordance with the UN guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance; urges all parties to agree on the modalities to implement humanitarian pauses, as well as key routes to enable promptly
 upon notification from relief agencies
 the safe and unhindered passage of humanitarian convoys along these routes to access people in need.
Hard to reach and besieged areas:
At least 2.5 million people are estimated
to be living in “hard to reach” areas
in dire need of humanitarian assistance, including in Rural Damascus (525,000), Aleppo (500,000), Damascus (320,000), Hassakeh (290,000), Dara
’a (185,000) and Homs (150,000).
This figure is likely to increase based on latest information and includes besieged

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