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Echocardiography Board Review

Echocardiography Board Review



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Published by khlnguyen
Echocardiography Board Review: 400 Multiple Choice Questions With Discussion by Ramdas Pai and Padmini Varadarajan
Echocardiography Board Review: 400 Multiple Choice Questions With Discussion by Ramdas Pai and Padmini Varadarajan

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Published by: khlnguyen on Aug 12, 2009
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Chapter 1
1. The speed of sound in tissues is:A. Roughly 1540 m/sB. Roughly 1540 km/sC. Roughly 1540 cm/sD. Roughly 1540 m/min2. The mitral flow measurementsina 62-year-old man are: leftventricular (LV)isovolumicrelaxation time (IVRT) 50 ms, E/A ratio 1.5 and E-wave deceleration time 140 ms.This is suggestive of:A. Normal left atrial (LA) pressureB. Abnormal LV relaxationC. High LA pressureD. None of the above3. The frame rate increases with:A. Increasing the depthB. Reducing sector angleC. Increasing line densityD. Adding color Doppler to B-mode imaging4. Themitralflow measurementsina1-year-oldchildare:LVIVRT50ms,E/Aratio2.5and E-wave deceleration time 120 ms. This is:A. NormalB. Suggestive of abnormal LV relaxationC. Suggestive of high LA pressureD. Is pseudonormal5. Determination of regurgitant orifice area by the proximal isovelocity surface area(PISA) method is based on:A. Law of conservation of massB. Law of conservation of energyC. Law of conservation of momentumD. Jet momentum analysis6. In which situation can you not use the simplified Bernoulli equation to derive thepressure gradient?A. Peak instantaneous gradient across a nonobstructed mitral valveB. Peak gradient across a severely stenotic aortic valve
C. Mean gradient across a severely stenotic aortic valveD. Mean gradient across a stenotic tricuspid valve7. Which of the following resolutions changes with increasing field depth?A. Axial resolutionB. Lateral resolution8. With a fixed-focus transducer with crystal diameter 20mm and wavelength 2.5mm,what is the depth of the focus?A. 40mB. 30mmC. 40mmD. 4m9. A sonographer adjusts the ultrasound machine to double the depth of view from 5cmto 10cm. If sector angle is reduced to keep the frame rate constant, which of thefollowing has changed?A. Axial resolutionB. Temporal resolutionC. Lateral resolutionD. The wavelength10. Which of the following properties of a reflected wave is most important in the genesisof a two-dimensional image?A. AmplitudeB. PeriodC. Pulse repetition periodD. Pulse duration11. Increasing depth will change all of the following except:A. Pulse durationB. Pulse repetition periodC. Pulse repetition frequencyD. Duty facto12. The two-dimensional images are produced because of this phenomenon when theultrasound reaches the tissue:A. RefractionB. Backscatter C. Specular reflectionD. Transmission13. Attenuation of ultrasound as it travels to the tissue is increased by:A. Greater depthB. Lower transducer frequencyC. Blood rather than soft tissue like muscleD. Bone more than air 
Echocardiography Board Review
14. The half-intensity depth is a measure of:A. Ultrasound attenuation in tissueB. Half the wall thickness in mmC. Coating on the surface of the transducer D. Half the ultrasound beam width15. What is the highest pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a 3MHz pulsed wave trans-ducer imaging at a depth of 7 cm?A. 21000 HzB. 2333 HzC. 11000 HzD. 2.1 million Hz16. Examples of continuous wave imaging include:A. Two-dimensional imageB. Volumetric scanner-acquired LV imageC. Color flow imagingD. Nonimaging Doppler probe (Pedoff)17. Which of the following manipulations will increase the frame rate?A. Increase depthB. Increase transmit frequencyC. Decrease sector angleD. Increase transmit power 18. The lateral resolution increases with:A. Decreasing transducer diameter B. Reducing power C. Beam focusingD. Reducing transmit frequency19. Axial resolution can be improved by which of the following manipulations?A. Reduce beam diameter B. Beam focusingC. Reduce gainD. Increase transmit frequency20. Type of sound used in medical imaging is:A. UltrasoundB. InfrasoundC. Audible sound
Chapter 1

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