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102099

102099

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Published by Ronit Pollak Nahum
102099
102099

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Published by: Ronit Pollak Nahum on Nov 16, 2013
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11/16/2013

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H
ATE
C
RIMES IN THE
OSCE
 
R
EGION
: I
NCIDENTS AND
R
ESPONSES
 
A
NNUAL
R
EPORT FOR
2011
Warsaw, November 2012
 
 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword....................................................................................................................................4 Acronyms...................................................................................................................................5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...........................................................................................................6 Part I: Information submitted by participating States................................................................7 Part II: Additional information gathered by ODIHR and information on specific bias motivations ………………………………………………………………………………………..7 Part III: Recommendations........................................................................................................8 Part IV: Country-by-Country Overview....................................................................................8 Annexes 8 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................9 OSCE commitments and ODIHR’s mandate.............................................................................9 Objective..................................................................................................................................11 Methodology............................................................................................................................11 NGO data.................................................................................................................................12 IGO data...................................................................................................................................13 The media.................................................................................................................................13 Terminology.............................................................................................................................14 PART I – INFORMATION SUBMITTED BY PARTICIPATING STATES AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS......................................................................15 A. Introduction................................................................................................................15 B. Data collection...........................................................................................................15 Overview..................................................................................................................................15 Authorities responsible for hate crime data collection.............................................................16 Bias-motivation categories.......................................................................................................17 Overview of specific bias motivations recorded in statistics...................................................19 Methodological issues relating to categorizing data................................................................20 Types of crimes........................................................................................................................20 Uses of data..............................................................................................................................22 Number of hate crimes.............................................................................................................22 C. Legal framework: overview of developments...........................................................26 European Union and European Court of Human Rights..........................................................26 National developments.............................................................................................................26 D. Activities by international organizations to address hate crimes...............................28 OSCE and ODIHR activities...................................................................................................28 United Nations activities..........................................................................................................30 E. Institutional developments.........................................................................................35 PART II – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION GATHERED BY ODIHR AND INFORMATION ON SPECIFIC BIAS MOTIVATIONS......................................................................................38 A. Introduction................................................................................................................38 B. Context.......................................................................................................................38 C. Danger of escalation..................................................................................................39 D. Under-reporting.........................................................................................................40 E. Intolerant discourse....................................................................................................40 F. Human rights defenders.............................................................................................41 G. Hate crimes against specific target groups.................................................................44 RACIST AND XENOPHOBIC CRIMES AND INCIDENTS...................................................44 Background..............................................................................................................................44 Information and data on crimes and incidents motivated by racism and xenophobia.............45 Key statements and resolutions from international organizations...........................................50 Government, IGO and NGO responses to racist and xenophobic crimes and incidents..........51 CRIMES AND INCIDENTS MOTIVATED BY BIAS AGAINST ROMA AND SINTI.........54 Background..............................................................................................................................54 Information and data on crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Roma and Sinti .....55. Key resolutions and statements from international organizations...........................................57
 
 3
Government and NGO responses to crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Roma and Sinti ……………………………………………………………………………………….58 ANTI-SEMITIC CRIMES AND INCIDENTS..........................................................................60 Background..............................................................................................................................60 Information and data on anti-Semitic crimes and incidents.....................................................61 Government and NGO responses to anti-Semitic crimes and incidents..................................65 ANTI-MUSLIM CRIMES AND INCIDENTS..........................................................................67 Background..............................................................................................................................67 Information and data on anti-Muslim hate crimes and incidents.............................................68 Key resolutions and statements from international organizations...........................................71 Government and NGO responses to crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Muslims71 CRIMES AND INCIDENTS MOTIVATED BY BIAS AGAINST CHRISTIANS AND MEMBERS OF OTHER RELIGIONS.......................................................................................73 Background..............................................................................................................................73 Information and data on crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Christians and other religions 73 Key resolutions and statements from international organizations...........................................78 Government and NGO responses to crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Christians and members of other religions................................................................................................79 CRIMES AND INCIDENTS BASED ON OTHER BIAS MOTIVATIONS............................80 Background..............................................................................................................................80 Information and data on crimes and incidents motivated by bias against LGBT people.........80 Key resolutions and statements from international organizations...........................................85 Government and NGO responses to crimes and incidents motivated by bias against LGBT people 87 Information on crimes and incidents motivated by bias against people with disabilities and against people from other groups.............................................................................................89 Government and NGO responses to crimes and incidents motivated by bias against people with disabilities and against people from other groups....................................................................89 PART III - RECOMMENDATIONS..........................................................................................91 Data collection.........................................................................................................................91 Legislation................................................................................................................................91 Criminal justice agencies.........................................................................................................92 Co-operation with civil society................................................................................................93 Programmatic activities...........................................................................................................94 Enhancing OSCE activities......................................................................................................94 PART IV – COUNTRY-BY-COUNTRY OVERVIEW............................................................96 ANNEX A: OSCE commitments pertaining to hate-motivated incidents and crimes..............139 ANNEX B: List of National Points of Contact in Combating Hate Crime NPCs.....................145 ANNEX C: Guidelines for NGOs on reporting hate crimes.....................................................148 ANNEX D: NGOs and civil society organizations...................................................................154 ANNEX E: List of media sources.............................................................................................159 ANNEX F: Questionnaire for NPCs.........................................................................................160 ANNEX G: Maps …………………………………………………………………………..…171 Map 1: Overview of information submitted by participating States ………………………….171 Map 2: Overview of information ……………………………………………………………..172 Map 3: Racist and xenophobic crimes and incidents …………………………………………173 Map 4: Crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Roma and Sinti ……….....................174 Map 5: Anti-Semitic crimes and incidents …………………………………………..………..175 Map 6: Anti-Muslim crimes and incidents …………………………………………................176 Map 7: Crimes and incidents motivated by bias against Christians and members of other religions ………………………………………………………………..…..…………….177 Map 8: Crimes and incidents motivated by bias against LGBT persons ……………………...178 Map 9: Crimes and incidents motivated by bias against persons with disabilities ....................179

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