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Table Of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
2 BACKGROUND
2.1 Smectite-based materials in final disposal
2.1.1 Physical requirements for bentonite
2.1.2 Chemical requirements for bentonite
2.1.3 Mineralogical requirements for bentonite
2.2 BENTONITE SOURCES
3.1 Mineralogical methods in bentonite study
3.1.1 X-ray diffraction (XRD)
3.1.2 Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
3.1.4 Mineral liberation analysis (MLA)
3.1.5 Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA)
3.2 Chemical analysis
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 XRF
3.2.3 Wet chemical analysis: Lithium metaborate fusion + ICP-AES/MS
3.2.4 CEC
3.2.5 Water determinations
3.2.6 Carbon and sulphur determinations
3.2.7 Determination of ferrous iron
3.3 Geotechnical tests
3.3.1 Determination of consistency limits
3.3.2 Thermal analysis (TG-DTA/DSC)
3.3.3 Determination of thermal conductivity
3.3.4 Determination of hydraulic conductivity
3.3.5 Determination of swelling pressure
3.3.6 Determination of density and porosity
3.3.7 Determination of particle size and shape
3.3.8 Moisture determinations
3.4 Indicator tests
3.4.1 Methylene Blue test
3.4.2 Determination of swelling index
3.4.3 Determination of water absorption
4 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM FOR THE BENTONITE
4.1 Production and quality documentation of bentonite
4.2 The bentonite shipping, handling and storage
4.3 Quality assurance – process description
4.4 Principles of sampling
4.5 Properties, number of tests and criteria
4.6 Procedure for approval or rejection
4.7 Quality indicators
4.8 Bentonite sampling
4.9 Testing program for the bentonite
4.10 Quality requirements for the bentonite
5 QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM FOR THE BALLAST
5.1 Crushing process
5.2 Storage of the ballast
5.3 Quality assurance – process description
5.4 Ballast sampling
5.5 Testing program for the ballast
5.6 Quality requirements for the ballast
6.1 Mixing of bentonite and ballast
6.2 Storage of the mixture
6.3 Quality assurance – process description
6.4 Sampling of mixture of bentonite and ballast
6.5 Testing program for the mixture of bentonite and ballast
6.6 Quality requirements for the mixture of bentonite and ballast
7 CASE STUDY OF BENTONITE SAMPLES
7.2 Chemical determinations
7.2.1 Reference montmorillonite
7.2.2 Results of bentonite analyses
7.3 Mineralogical studies
7.3.1 XRD Studies
7.3.2 Thermoanalytical characterization of bentonite clays
7.4 Geotechnical tests
7.4.1 Water content, swelling index, liquid limit and CEC
7.5 Comparison of the results
7.5.1 Water/moisture content
7.5.2 Cation exchange capacity (CEC)
7.5.3 Other determinations
8 CONCLUDING DISCUSSION
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
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WR_2008-33_web

WR_2008-33_web

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Published by Ahmed Arfa

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Published by: Ahmed Arfa on Nov 16, 2013
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