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Thyristor Theory and Design Considerations

Thyristor Theory and Design Considerations

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Published by: vijai daniel on Aug 12, 2009
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1
Thyristor Theory and Design Considerations
Handbook
HBD855/DRev. 1, Nov−2006
©
SCILLC, 2005Previous Edition
©
2005 as Excerpted from DL137/D“All Rights Reserved’’
 
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2
ABOUT THYRISTORS
Thyristors can take many forms, but they have certainthings in common. All of them are solid state switcheswhich act as open circuits capable of withstanding therated voltage until triggered. When they are triggered,thyristors become low−impedance current paths andremain in that condition until the current either stops ordrops below a minimum value called the holding level.Once a thyristor has been triggered, the trigger current canbe removed without turning off the device.Silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) and triacs are bothmembers of the thyristor family. SCRs are unidirectionaldevices where triacs are bidirectional. An SCR isdesigned to switch load current in one direction, while atriac is designed to conduct load current in eitherdirection.Structurally, all thyristors consist of several alternatinglayers of opposite P and N silicon, with the exact structurevarying with the particular kind of device. The load isapplied across the multiple junctions and the triggercurrent is injected at one of them. The trigger currentallows the load current to flow through the device, settingup a regenerative action which keeps the current flowingeven after the trigger is removed.These characteristics make thyristors extremely usefulin control applications. Compared to a mechanical switch,a thyristor has a very long service life and very fast turnon and turn off times. Because of their fast reaction times,regenerative action and low resistance once triggered,thyristors are useful as power controllers and transientovervoltage protectors, as well as simply turning deviceson and off. Thyristors are used in motor controls,incandescent lights, home appliances, cameras, officeequipment, programmable logic controls, ground faultinterrupters, dimmer switches, power tools,telecommunication equipment, power supplies, timers,capacitor discharge ignitors, engine ignition systems, andmany other kinds of equipment.Although thyristors of all sorts are generally rugged,there are several points to keep in mind when designingcircuits using them. One of the most important is torespect the devices’ rated limits on rate of change of voltage and current (dv/dt and di/dt). If these areexceeded, the thyristor may be damaged or destroyed. Onthe other hand, it is important to provide a trigger pulselarge enough and fast enough to turn the gate on quicklyand completely. Usually the gate trigger current should beat least 50 percent greater than the maximum rated gatetrigger current. Thyristors may be driven in manydifferent ways, including directly from transistors or logicfamilies, power control integrated circuits, byoptoisolated triac drivers, programmable unijunctiontransistors (PUTs) and SIDACs. These and other designconsiderations are covered in this manual.Of interest too, is a new line of Thyristor SurgeSuppressors in the surface mount SMB package coveringsurge currents of 50, 80 and 100 amps, with breakovervoltages from 77 to 400 volts. NP Series Thyristor SurgeProtector Devices (TSPD) protect telecommunicationcircuits such as central office, access, and customerpremises equipment from overvoltage conditions. Theseare bidirectional devices so they are able to havefunctionality of 2 devices in one package, saving valuablespace on board layout. These devices will act as a crowbarwhen overvoltage occurs and will divert the energy awayfrom circuit or device that is being protected. Use of theNP Series in equipment will help meet various regulatoryrequirements including: GR−1089−CORE, IEC61000−4−5, ITU K.20/21/45, IEC 60950, TIA−968−A,FCC Part 68, EN 60950, UL 1950. See ONSemiconductor application note AND8022/D foradditional information.
 
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3
Sections 1 thru 9
CHAPTER 1Theory and Applications
PageSection 1: Symbols and Terminology
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 2: Theory of Thyristor Operation
10. . . . . . . . .Basic Behavior10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Switching Characteristics13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .False Triggering15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Theory of SCR Power Control16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Triac Theory22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Methods of Control24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Zero Point Switching Techniques25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 3: Thyristor Drivers and Triggering
29. . . . . . .Pulse Triggering of SCRs29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Effect of Temperature, Voltage and Loads33. . . . . . . .Using Negative Bias and Shunting35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Snubbing Thyristors38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Using Sensitive Gate SCRs40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Drivers: Programmable UnijunctionTransistors44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 4: The SIDAC, A New High VoltageBilateral Trigger
49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 5: SCR Characteristics
60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SCR Turn−Off Characteristics60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SCR Turn−Off Mechanism60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SCR Turn−Off Time t
q
60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Parameters Affecting t
q
65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Characterizing SCRs for Crowbar Applications71. . . .Switches as Line−Type Modulators79. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Parallel Connected SCRs85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RFI Suppression in Thyristor Circuits89. . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 6: Applications
93. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phase Control with Thyristors93. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Motor Control94. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phase Control with Trigger Devices102. . . . . . . . . . . . .Cycle Control with Optically IsolatedTriac Drivers105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AC Power Control with Solid−State Relays110. . . . . . .Triacs and Inductive Loads114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Inverse Parallel SCRs for Power Control117. . . . . . . .
Page
Interfacing Digital Circuits to ThyristorControlled AC Loads118. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DC Motor Control with Thyristors127. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT)Applications132. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Triac Zero−Point Switch Applications136. . . . . . . . . . .AN1045 — Series Triacs in AC High VoltageSwitching Circuits141. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AN1048 — RC Snubber Networks for ThyristorPower Control and Transient Suppression152. . . . . . .AND8005 — Automatic AC Line VoltageSelector174. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND8006 — Electronic Starter for FlourescentLamps177. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND8007 — Momentary Solid State Switchfor Split Phase Motors181. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND8008 — Solid State Control Solutionsfor Three Phase 1 HP Motor186. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND8015 — Long Life Incandescent Lampsusing SIDACs194. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND8017 — Solid State Control forBi−Directional Motors198. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 7: Mounting Techniques for Thyristors
201. . .Mounting Surface Considerations202. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal Interface203. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Insulation Considerations204. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fastening Techniques209. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Insulated Packages210. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Surface Mount Devices212. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal System Evaluation214. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 8: Reliability and Quality
218. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Using Transient Thermal Resistance Data inHigh Power Pulsed Thyristor Applications218. . . . . . .Thyristor Construction230. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .In−Process Controls and Inspections230. . . . . . . . . . .Reliability Tests231. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stress Testing233. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Environmental Testing233. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 9: Appendices
234. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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