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Communicable Disease Sudan

Communicable Disease Sudan

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WHO/CDS/2005.26
 
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE TOOLKIT
SUDAN
 
1. COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PROFILE
World Health Organization2005
 Communicable Disease Working Group on Emergencies, WHO/HQWHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, EMR0WHO Country Office, Khartoum
 
Communicable Disease Toolkit for SUDAN: Communicable Disease Profile 2005World Health Organization
 
 © World Health Organization 2005
 All rights reserved.The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expressionof any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of anycountry, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed orrecommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.All reasonable precautions have been taken by WHO to verify the information contained in this publication.However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. Theresponsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the WorldHealth Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.The named authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication.Further information is available at: CDS Information Resource Centre, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva27, Switzerland; fax: (+41) 22 791 4285, e-mail:cdsdocs@who.int 
 
Communicable Disease Toolkit for SUDAN: Communicable Disease Profile 2005
World Health Organization
iii
CONTENTS
Contents ..............................................................................................................................................................iii
 
Acknowledgements............................................................................................................................................iv
 
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................v
 
1.
 
Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI)........................................................................................1
 
2.
 
African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness).....................................................................4
 
3.
 
Bacillary dysentry (shigellosis).........................................................................................................9
 
4.
 
Cholera...............................................................................................................................................11
 
5.
 
Diarrhoeal diseases (others)............................................................................................................15
 
6.
 
Diphtheria...........................................................................................................................................18
 
7.
 
Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)...........................................................................................22
 
8.
 
Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever...............................................................................................................26
 
9.
 
HIV/AIDS.............................................................................................................................................30
 
10.
 
Leishmaniasis (cutaneous and mucosal).......................................................................................38
 
11.
 
Visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar)...................................................................................................42
 
12.
 
Leprosy...............................................................................................................................................46
 
13.
 
Lymphatic filariasis...........................................................................................................................49
 
14.
 
Malaria................................................................................................................................................53
 
15.
 
Measles...............................................................................................................................................58
 
16.
 
Meningococcal disease (meningitis and septicaemic form).........................................................62
 
17.
 
Onchocerciasis (river blindness).....................................................................................................68
 
18.
 
Pertussis (whooping cough)............................................................................................................73
 
19.
 
Poliomyelitis.......................................................................................................................................77
 
20.
 
Rabies.................................................................................................................................................81
 
21.
 
Schistosomiasis................................................................................................................................85
 
22.
 
Soil-transmitted helminthiases.........................................................................................................89
 
23.
 
Tuberculosis......................................................................................................................................93
 
24.
 
Typhoid fever...................................................................................................................................103
 
25.
 
Yellow fever......................................................................................................................................105APPENDIX 1: Flowcharts for the diagnosis of communicable diseases...................................................108
 
APPENDIX 2: Steps in outbreak management..............................................................................................113
 
APPENDIX 3: Safe water and sanitation........................................................................................................114
 
APPENDIX 4: Injection safety.........................................................................................................................115
 
APPENDIX 5: Key contacts for Sudan...........................................................................................................116
 
APPENDIX 6: List of WHO guidelines on communicable diseases.............................................................119
 
APPENDIX 7: Immunization schedule for Sudan..........................................................................................122
 
APPENDIX 8: Map of Sudan............................................................................................................................123
 
APPENDIX 9: Population of Sudan, 2000......................................................................................................124
 
APPENDIX 10: Basic health indicators in Sudan..........................................................................................125
 

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