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CCNA cheatsheet Guide 640-507 640-802 .doc

CCNA cheatsheet Guide 640-507 640-802 .doc

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CCNA cheatsheet Guide 640-507 640-802 .doc
CCNA cheatsheet Guide 640-507 640-802 .doc

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05/11/2014

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Cheat Sheet for 
 Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide to Exam 640-507 (2
nd
Ed.)
originally by Todd Lammle,
 
 published by Sybex; condensed May 2001 by Robert S. with gratitude to Shankar 
“Good artists copy. Great artists steal.” – Pablo Picasso
The best way to study something is to regurgitate it in one’s own words. WhenI studied CCNA, I wrote this thing. I reduced 700 pages to a fourteen-page booklet so I could carry it around, reviewing everywhere I went.This document is color-coded, with all the IOS commands in
violet arialnarrow
, for example. As I realize the minimal benefits of color when one printson black and white laser printers, I’ve tried to be sensible about my choices. I stillsuggest you print it in color, if possible. (
Word Viewer 
wrongly italicizes mycommands.)In each chapter, Todd Lammle lists key terms with which you should befamiliar before the exam. I haven’t tried to define every term but I have writtenthem in blue, underlined in squiggles, so look at each and ask, “Can I define this?”
 
An easier color code to spot is my grey shading. This indicates stuff Lammle,instructors, and some unreliable friends have told me is
not likely
to be on theexam. Reading it might help your understanding but don’t sweat memorizing it.Wiggly red lines to either side show text I’ve been strongly warned to study.I’m more careful than Lammle to show correct prompts – I didn’t want to wastespace repeating
config t
and
int s0
– so it’s up to you to notice the modewe’re in.I try to avoid repeating myself, so you might have to read the whole booklet tofind a definition you need. When I introduce terms, I often show them in
boldface type
(but, then, I use bold face type for a lot of things).To save space, I use the following conventions:- I refer to OSI layers as “L2,” “L3,” &c., instead of “data-link” and “network.”- When I bother to show IOS prompts, I leave off the router names.- I shorten bandwidth to BW, virtual circuit to VC, configuration file to CF, &c.- The proper Latin plural of “status” is “stati” but I sometimes say “stats.”- “Et cetera” (or “etc.,” meaning “and so forth”) can also be written “&c.”I’ve borrowed from other sources, too, because I want as much of the exam hereas possible. I’ve tried to make it all self-evident. This booklet, alone, might beenough to pass the exam (everything on my exam is here) but that wasn’t my goal.Although Lammle’s $140 book isn’t perfect (his Frame Relay stuff has severalerrors and omissions, for example, and the CD-ROMs are full of mistakes) but youshould still buy it and the network simulator software that comes with it.My exam was 75 minutes & 65 questions. Different exams have different passing scores, so your final score is MEANINGLESS. Buona Fortuna!
CiscolyYours,
R.S.Contents: [
 Note: Chapters II & VI are paired.
]IV router configuration basics (pg 7)VIII IPX (pg 10)I LANs, OSI model, Cisco model (pg 1)V IP routing, RIP, IGRP (pg 8)IX access lists (pg 11)II – switches, Spanning Tree Protocol (pg 5)VI – VLANs, tagging, VLAN Trunk Protocol (pg 5)X – WANS, HDLC, PPP Frame Relay, ISDN (pg 12)III IP subnetting (pg 6)VII boot-up & connectivity tools (pg 9)Appendix B the Catalyst 1900 switch (pg 14)
CHAPTER I – INTERNETWORKING and the OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL
or “Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Around.”
(5-7 questions on the OSI model; an unknown number on general networking)
This chart summarizes the ISOOpen Systems Interconnectionmodel, laid out in more detail hereafter. A layered model reduces complexity, permits the use of standard interfaces, lets engineers make modular changes, lets different technologies inter-operate, accelerates evolution, and is easier to learn. Although all sevenlayers could be on the exam, they’re not equally critical: You can answer the basic OSI layer questions by knowing enough to tell them apart. The real reason to studylayers 2 and 3, where switches and routers work, and L4, where many big protocols appear, is these descriptions form the foundation for much of the exam. If youdon’t grasp the L2 – L4 details of this chapter well enough to write them out from memory, you’re toast.
layer 
L1L2L3L4L5L6L7
mnemonic
PleaseDoNotThrowSausagePizzaAround!
name
Physical
 
Data-LinkNetworkTransportSessionPresentationApplication
 functional mnemonic
DestinationDrop-boxes &Doorsteps Navigates the National hiway Network Truckers &TeamstersSplit-SecondSequencingPasting Parts & Pieces intoProper Products
 Protocol DataUnit (PDU)
 blasts framesinto
bits
nails packetsinto
frames
wraps segmentsinto
packets
chops data into
segmentsdata
This layer isanalogous to...
a conveyor  belta mailmanfinding amailboxa navigator finding a towna loading dock worker boxing ashipmenta dispatcher (or talk show host)sequencing tasksa newspaper editor compiling documentsa corporate executiveissuing instructions
The Big Picture: It’s all about...
sending andreceiving bitshardwareaddressinglogical (network)addressing packing & shippingtimingfile formatsgiving orders
key concepts
 physicaltopologyframingroutingend-to-endconnectionsdialog controlencryption, compression,translationassorted applicationfunctions
main network operations
 puts bits onthe wireframes data for local network routes betweennetworks provides flow controlopens / closessessionsdemands transfers; IDs partners; final error resolution
This layer filters PDUs using…
hardware(physical)addressesnetwork addresses/ protocol #s ports / sockets
devices
hubsswitchesroutersgateways
The CISCO 3-LAYER where-you-should-spend-your-money MODEL
CORE LAYER - speed is critical- can affect all users- should be fault-tolerant and reliable- no filtering, security slowdowns, or inter-VLAN routing- no workgroup access- could use FDDI, fast (100Mb) Ethernet, gigabit (1000Mb) Ethernet, or ATM- when improvements are necessary, upgrade; don’t expandDISTRIBUTION LAYER - routing- inter-VLAN routing- WAN access- gatekeeper to the core layer - determines how best to handle requests- security, filtering, firewalls- queuing (print jobs, &c.)- transitions between routing protocols (including static routing)- definition of broadcast/multicast domainsACCESS LAYER - a.k.a. the “desktop layer”- more specific security- segmenting for more collision domains- connectivity to distribution layer via 100Mbps links- Dial on Demand Routing (DDR)- Ethernet switching- static routing
1
 
- connect 10Mbps switches to workstations; 100Mbps switches to servers
2
 
THE UPPER LAYERS: COMMAND & CONTROL
L7
Application Layer* DATA STREAMS (MESSAGES) *
 It's all about GIVING ORDERS; the corporate executive; what you see on the screen; interaction with the user; interaction between programs;communications launching.
The highest level of the model. It defines the manner in which applications interactwith the network, including database management, e-mail, and terminal-emulation programs.KEY CONCEPTS:
file, print, message, database, and application services
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- determining availability of communication partners and network resources- coordinating partnerships between multiple applications- ultimate authority over data integrity and error recoveryPROTOCOLS (network applications) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:-
FTP
(TCP
- port 21
) - ‘
 File Transfer Protocol’ full-featured, secure filemanagement 
-
Telnet
(UDP
- port 23
) -
terminal emulator program; uses L3 IP and L4 TCP 
-
SMTP
(TCP
- port 25
) -
‘Simple Mail Transfer Protocol’ e-mail sending 
-
DNS
(UDP
- port 53
) -
‘Domain Name Service’ English-to-IP translation
-
HTTP
(TCP
- port 80
) -
‘HyperText Transfer Protocol’ World Wide Webbrowsing 
- POP3 (TCP) -
‘Post Office Protocol’ e-mail receiving 
 
- X.400 -
alternative e-mail management 
- NNTP -
‘Network News Transfer Protocol’ newsgroup post management 
- TFTP (UDP) - ‘
Trivial File Transfer Protocol’ stripped-down file transfers
- SNMP (TCP) - ‘
Simple Network Management Protocol’ (“Are you O.K?”)
- IRC (TCP)
 – ‘Internet Relay Chat’ keyboard chat program
- EDI
- 'Electronic Data Interchange' for e-commerce transactions
Presentation Layer – 
“Pasting Parts & Pieces into Proper Products” 
* DATA STREAMS *
L6
 It's all about FILE FORMATS; the
newspaper editor;
data on the hard disk; presentation of data to the programs in binary format.
Defines the way in which data is formatted, presented, converted, and encoded.KEY CONCEPTS:-
encryption
-
compression
-
translation
between file formats (MIDI, MPEG, PICT, TIFF, JPEG, ASCII,EBCDIC, &c.)
L5
Session Layer – 
“Split-Second Sequencing” 
* DATA STREAMS *
 It's all about TIMING; the dispatcher / talk show host; organizes and directscommunication sessions; keeps data separate for different applications.
Coordinates communications and maintains the session for as long as it is needed, performing security, logging, and administrative functions. Manages simplex,half-duplex, and full-duplex modes.KEY CONCEPT:
dialog control
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- opening, maintenance, and closure of sessions between devices / applications- managing simplex, half-, and full-duplex modes- keeping data separate for different applicationsPROTOCOLS (for manipulating remote systems) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:- NFS -
‘Network File System’ sharing between different file systems
- SQL
- ‘Structured Query Language’ database sorting 
- RPC
- ‘Remote Procedure Call’ for running a process on another machine
- ASP -
‘Apple
alk Session Protocol’ 
- X Window
- remote UNIX GUI emulator 
- NetBIOS
- API giving programs consistent set of tools to call for network  functions
- NetBEUI
- file sharing device driver for tiny Microsoft LANs (not routable)
THE MIDDLE LAYERS: SHIPPING & RECEIVING
L4
Transport Layer – 
“Truckers & Teamsters” 
* chops data into SEGMENTS *
 It's all about PACKING & SHIPPING (either reliable TCP/SPX or unreliableUDP/IPX); the loading dock worker; data chopper & reassembler; creates and reads segments; asks, “Which port (which pipeline) do we stuff this into?” “Did the packets get where they should?” “What belongs in this pipe?” 
Defines protocols for structuring messages and supervises the validity of thetransmission by performing some error checking.KEY CONCEPT:
end-to-end connection
 NETWORK OPERATIONS PERFORMED:- data segmentation and reassembly; multiplexing several streams onto one link - acknowledging packet receipt during connection-oriented transfers- re-sequencing of received packets following connectionless transfers- flow control (buffering, source-quench messages, & windowing)- error checking & correction by counting segments & requesting retransmissions- managing virtual circuitsDISCRIMINATES BY:- application port / socket numbers, by which a segment identifies which upper-layer protocol will use its data (e.g. firewall filtering)PROTOCOLS (delivery control methods) FOUND AT THIS LAYER:- TCP
- ‘Transmission Control Protocol’ reliable delivery boy creating connection-oriented links
- UDP
- ‘User Datagram Protocol’ unreliable delivery boy using connectionlesstransfers
- SPX -
‘Sequenced Packet eXchange’ connection management tools added to IPX  for reliable, connection-oriented communication
TECHNOLOGIES:- gatewaysThere are 65,535 application ports in both TCP and UDP flavors. (Mostapplications, however, only use one flavor or the other.) Here are a few ports:TCP 6L2TP 115echo 7NNTP (TCP) 119UDP 17NTP 123FTP data (TCP) 20NetBIOS file share (UDP) 137
FTP
control (TCP)
21
 NetBIOS file share (UDP) 138
Telnet
(UDP)
23
 NetBIOS file share (TCP) 139
SMTP
(TCP)
25
news 144
DNS
(UDP)
53
SNMP 161TFTP (UDP) 69SNMP trap 162finger 79-------------------------------------------
HTTP
(TCP)
80
 NetWare IP 396POP2 (TCP) 109HTTPS (TCP) 443POP3 (TCP) 110RIP (UDP) 520identification (TCP) 113Doom (yes, the game) 666Ports below 1024 are called the “well known” ports and are assigned by theInternet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Of these, the ones from 1 to 254are used by public applications and the ones from 255 to 1023 are used by proprietary (‘saleable’) applications.Ports 1024 and above are used as needed for addressing by the upper-layers or TCP during sessions. Some examples:WINS - 1512ICQ (UDP) - 4000IRC (TCP) - 6660-6669, specifically 6667 [also: 7000, et seq. for very largechat servers]ConSeal VPN (TCP) - 4995-4997
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