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Culture Value and Its Impact on Creativity and Innovatin

Culture Value and Its Impact on Creativity and Innovatin

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Published by: kenda on Aug 13, 2009
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 The impact of national cultureOn creativity and innovation in organisations(Study on Libyan culture)Literature review
A large body of literature has focused on determining a set of personalcharacteristicsand attributes associated with creative achievement (Barron andHarrington, 1981;Davis, 1989; Martindale, 1989). This research has examined personalcharacteristicsranging from biographical factors to measures of cognitive styles andintelligence(Amabile, 1983; Barron and Harrington, 1981; Davis, 1989; However andBachelor, 1989,Woodman and Schoenfeldt, 1989). In general, these studies havedemonstrated that astable set of core personal characteristics, including broad interests,attraction tocomplexity, intuition, aesthetic sensitivity, toleration of ambiguity, self confidence,relate positively and consistently to measures of creative performanceacross a varietyof domains(Barron and Harrington,1981;Gough,1979).Prior research also examined organisational factors, such as jobcomplexity andsupervision style that facilitate creative performance (e.g. Amabile, 1988;Amabileet al., 1996). Mott’s (1972) comparative research showed that effectiveorganizations areSimultaneously efficient and creative. Efficiency means optimising,stabilizing,andpolishing current methods and routines for highest quantity, quality, andcustomersatisfaction at the lowest cost possible. Organisational creativity meansdeliberatelychanging current methods to make new levels of quantity, quality, cost,and customersatisfaction possible. Both new methods and new products result fromcreativity.Basadur et al. (2002) found that creativity can be developed, increased,and managedby organisations. Specific results from increasing organisational creativitycan be
identified, including new products and methods, increased efficiency,greatermotivation, job satisfaction, teamwork, a focus on customer satisfaction,and morestrategic thinking at all levels.
Studies on Arabic context
While there is large amount of research in creativity and innovation in theWest, little research has been conducted to assess the factors affectingcreativity and innovation in the Arab world.Atiyya(1992)and ParnllHatim(1999)noted that there is alack of empirical research into Arabmanagement practices in general and creativity research in particular. The paucity of research on creativity in Arab world can be ascribed,among other thing, to the traditional thinking about creativity prevailing inArab culture.Creatiity research requires curiosity,adventurousness,andrisk taking.These are comfortable traits for most Westerners but not forthe typical Arab. Most Arabs prefer the comfort of proven ideas and shyaway from exploring risky options. They seem to prefer a more structured,team-oriented approach to avoid losing face or being excluded.Despitethis lack of academic attention to creativity in the Arab world, a fewstudies have focused on creativity and innovation.In an Arab context, a study by Makhamerah and Al-Dahhan (1988)examinedfactors affecting employees’ innovation in public companies in Jordan. Itconcludedthat innovation is affected by managerial attitudes, the establishment of objectivecriteria and encouragement of employees’ interactions and exchange of ideas. Anotherstudy by Abu-Farris (1990) attempted to test the impact of certain factorson employees’innovation in a sample of public enterprises in Jordan. It found thatmaterial and nonmaterialincentives affected positively employeesinnovation. It also found noimpactof sex and position on employees’ innovation.Awamleh (1994) examined the relationship between managerial creativity(dependentvariable) and sex, age, education, organisational level, and length of service asindependent variables in a sample of 293 managers in Jordan. The studyfound that themost significant obstacles to creativity are those related to organisationalclimate.Mikdashi (1999) assessed the effects of organisational climate onmanagers’ creativity
in Lebanon. This study also investigated the constitutive meaning of creativity as aconstruct through the relation between creativity and other organisationalconstructs.Al-Beraidi and Rickards (2003) studied the creative team climate in SaudiArabia. This study argued that creative performance of teams could be stimulatedby leadershipintervention. A transformational leadership style has been found the mostappropriate inencouraging innovative behaviours.Abu-Taieh (2003) studied the relationship between leadership style andindividualinnovative behaviour. A sample of 430 managers from five large industrialfirms in Jordan participated in the study. A statistically significant relationshipbetweenleadership power and individual innovative behaviour was found.However, nostatistically significant relationship between legitimate and reward power,on onehand, and individual innovative behaviour on the other hand was found.Using a sample of 170 managers, Mostafa (2005) studied factors affectingorganisational creativity in Egyptian organisations. The study detected astatisticallysignificant difference in attitudes towards organisational creativity basedon themanagers’ functional area in the organisation. The study also found thatthe higher theeducation of the manager, the more he or she is likely to adopt creativeand innovativeactivities. The study detected no generation gap in the managersattitudes towardsorganisational creativity. Finally, the study found that male managershavesignificantly favourable attitudes towards creativity compared with theirfemalecounterparts. There is evidence that culture may affect one’s attitudes towardscreativity andinnovativeness. Csikszentmihayli (1996) asserts that creativity is theculturalcounterpart of genetic change resulting from biological evolution. Inbiologicalevolution random variations take place in genes and chromosomes,whereas in cultural

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