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Chapter 19 Electrical Properties

Chapter 19 Electrical Properties

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Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1
 Electrical Properties
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
2
Goals of this topic:
Understand how electrons move in materials: electrical conduction
How many moveable electrons are there in a material
(carrier density)
, how easily do they move
(mobility)
Metals, semiconductors and insulators
Electrons and holes
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Carriers
Semiconductor devices: p-n junctions and transistors
Ionic conduction
Electronic Properties of Ceramics: Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics and Piezoelectrics
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
3
Outline of this Topic
1. Basic laws and electrical properties of metals2. Band theory of solids: metals, semiconductors and insulators3. Electrical properties of semiconductors4. Electrical properties of ceramics and polymers5. Semiconductor devices
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
4
Ohm’s LawV = IR 
 E 
= V / Lwhere E is
electric field intensity
µ
= / E where
µ
= the mobility
Resistivity
ρ
= RA / L (
 
.m)
Conductivity
σ
= 1 /
ρ
(
 
.m)
-1
νν
= the drift velocity
1.Basic laws and electrical properties of metals
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
5
Electrical conductivity between different materials varies by over 27 orders of magnitude, the greatest variation of any physical property
Metals:
σ
> 10
5
(
.m)
-1
Semiconductors:
10
-6
<
σ
< 10
5
(
.m)
-1
Insulators:
σ
< 10
-6
(
.m)
-1
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
6
Conductivity / Resistivity of Metals
 
High number of free (valence) electrons
high
σ
Defects scatter electrons, therefore they increase
ρ
(lower
σ
).
ρ
total
=
ρ
thermal
+
ρ
impurity
+
ρ
deformation
 ρ 
thermal 
 from thermal vibrations
 ρ 
impurity
 from impurities
 ρ 
deformation
 from deformation-induced point defects
Resistivity increases with temperature (increased thermal vibrations and point defect densities)
ρ
T
=
ρ
o
+ aT
Additions of impurities that form solid sol:
ρ
I =
Ac
i
(1-c
i
)
(increases
 ρ 
 )
Two phases,
α
,
β
:
ρ
i =
ρ
α
V
α
+
 ρ
β
V
β
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
7
Materials Choices for Metal Conductors
 Most widely used conductor is copper: inexpensive, abundant, very high
 Silver has highest of metals, but use restricted due to cost 
 Aluminum main material for electronic circuits, transition to electrodeposited Cu (main problem was chemical etching, now done by “Chemical-Mechanical Polishing”)
 Remember deformation reduces conductivity, so high strength generally means lower : trade-off. Precipitation hardening may be best choice: e.g. Cu-Be.
 Heating elements require low (high R), and resistance to high temperature oxidation: nichrome.
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
8
Electric field causes electrons to accelerate in direction opposite to field
Velocity very quickly reaches average value, and then remains constant
Electron motion is not impeded by periodic crystal lattice
Scattering occurs from defects, surfaces, and atomic thermal vibrations
These scattering events constitute a “frictional force” that causes the velocity to maintain a constant mean value: v
d
, the
electron drift velocity
The drift velocity is proportional to the electric field, the constant of proportionality is the
mobility,
 
 .
This is a measure of how easily the electron moves in response to an electric field.
The conductivity depends on how many free electrons there are, n, and how easily they move
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
9
v
d
=
µ
e
E
σ
= n
|
e
|µ
e
n : number of “free”or conduction electrons per unit volume
E
Scattering events
Net electron motion
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
10
(m) = Metal (s) = Semicon Mobility (RT)
µ
 (m
2
V
-1
s
-1
) Carrier DensityN
e
 (m
-3
) Na (m) 0.0053 2.6
 x 
 10
28
Ag (m) 0.0057 5.9
 x 
 10
28
 Al (m) 0.0013 1.8
 x 
 10
29
 Si (s) 0.15 1.5
 x 
 10
10
 GaAs (s) 0.85 1.8 x 10
6
InSb (s) 8.00
σ
metal
>>
σ
semi
 
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
11
Band Theory of Solids
 Schroedinger’seqn (quantum mechanical equation for behavior of an electron)
 Solve it for a periodic crystal potential, and you will find that electrons have allowed ranges of energy ( 
energy bands
 
 ) and forbidden ranges of energy ( 
band-gaps
 
 ).
δ
2
ψ
δ
x
2
δ
ψ
δ
t
ψ
+ V
ψ
= E
ψ
(-h’
2
/2m) + V
ψ
= ih’2. Band theory of solids: metals, semiconductors and insulators
Introduction To Materials Science
FOR
ENGINEERS, Ch. 19University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
12
Electrons in an Isolated atom (Bohr Model)Electron orbits defined by requirement that they contain integral number of wavelengths:
quantize
angular momentum, energy, radius of orbit

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