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11b Evaporation 2

11b Evaporation 2

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chemical
chemical

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Published by: sivsyadav on Nov 19, 2013
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11/19/2013

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Heat and Mass Transfer
 
Mass Balance
 
!
 
Feed In = Product Out + Vapor Out
 
 =
p
 +
v
 
!
 
H
2
O in Feed = H
2
O in Product + H
2
O in Vapor
 
 (1 - x
) =
p
 (1-x
p
) +
v
 
!
 
Solids In = Solids Out
 
 x
 =
p
 x
p
 
= mass flow rate of i (kg/s) x
i
 = wt fraction of i
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
i
 
Heat Balance
 
q =
s
H
v,s
 =
 c
p
 (T
b
 - T
) +
v
H
v,p
 
Heat Transfer Across Evaporator Wall: q = UA(T
s
 - T
b
)
 
Heat Given by
 
Condensing Steam
 
Heat to Raise
 
Feed Temperature
 
Heat to Boil
 
Off Vapor
 
=
 
+
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
.
m
 
Heat Balance: an easier approach
 
˙
m
 f 
 H 
 f 
+
˙
m
s
 H 
vs
=
˙
m
v
 H 
v
1
+
˙
m
 p
 H 
 p
1
+
˙
m
s
 H 
cs
 
 H 
 f 
=
 c
 pf 
 (
 f 
 "
0
°
)
 H 
 p
1
=
 c
 pp
(
1
"
0
°
)
Use H
vs
 and H
cs
 at pressure/temperature of the steam chest steam
 
Use H
v1
 at the temperature of the boiling liquid
 
Steam Economy
 
!
 
Used to express operating performance of an evaporator
 
Steam Economy = Mass rate of water vapor produced from productMass rate of steam consumed =
.
 
m
v
 
.
 
m
s
 
Improving Evaporator Performance
 
!
 
Vapor Recompression: vapor leaving the product is compressed, thus raising its temperature.
!
 
Adiabatic compression gives superheated steam at high pressure.
 
!
 
Recycled vapors can be used as a heating medium
 
 
Atlas-Stord
 
Multiple-Effect Evaporator
 
!
 
Several effects are connected in sequence.
 
!
 
Vapor from 1 effect is used as heating medium for next.
 
!
 
Each stage must have a lower T
b
; sucessively lower pressures required to maintain (T
s
-T
b
) for heat transfer.
!
 
Trade-off between savings in energy costs and costs of equipment.
 
!
 
Forward Feed Systems
: concentrated product from first effect is pumped to the second effect to be further concentrated, then on to subsequent effects
 
!
 
 Reverse Feed Systems
: product from last effect is pumped to next to last effect, and so on.
 
 
Forward vs Reverse Feed
 
Advantages Disadvantages
 
Forward Feed
 
Inexpensive, no feed
 
pumps between effects,
 
lower T=less heat damage
 
to more viscous product
 
Best quality steam used
 
on most difficult product
 
to concentrate, better
 
economy and heat transfer
 
Reduced ht transfer
 
rates as product becomes
 
more viscous, rate of
 
evaporation falls with each
 
effect
 
Intersate pumps required,
 
higher risk of heat damage
 
to viscous product as
 
liquor moves more slowly
 
over hot surfaces
 
Reverse Feed
 
Batch-Type Pan Evaporator
 
!
 
product is heated in spherical vessel in open atmosphere or connected to a condenser/vacuum system.
 
!
 
Residence time long due to small surface area for heating
 
!
 
Heating usually by natural convection
 
!
 
Pan evaporator: maple syrup
 
Sugar cane
 
process
 

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