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Thermofluids Definition

# Thermofluids Definition

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Some definitions on terminology of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics
Some definitions on terminology of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics

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07/23/2010

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FV1201 Energy Transfer and Thermodynamics Definition of terms
Extensive property
An extensive property is one that depends upon the mass of materials involved. Examples arevolume, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy and total energy.
Two-property rule
If two independent properties of a pure substance are defined, then all other properties on the stateof the substance are also defined.
Control volume (CV)
A CV is a volume of space, chosen for the purpose of analysis, surrounded and defined by controlsurfaces around it. A control volume may involve heat and work transfer, just as a closed system,in addition to mass interaction.
Temperature
Temperature is the `thermodynamic potential’ of a body which controls the direction of heattransfer; in absolute terms it is measured in kelvins, K.
Reversible process
Reversible process is a process after which the system and its surrounding can be returned to theirinitial states without any trace left on them by this action.
Total energy of a flowing fluid
It is the sum of the enthalpy, kinetic, and potential energies of the flowing fluid.
Specific heat capacity
Specific thermal capacity is the ability of a material to contain thermal energy in relation to itstemperature, measured in J/kg
.
K.
Perfect gas
It is an ideal gas obeying the perfect gas equation PV = mRT, i.e. having a constant specific gasconstant and constant specific heat capacity.
Constant volume process undergone by a perfect gas
Constant volume gas process normally implies zero work done, and is therefore a simple heatingprocess with Q
12
= m c
v
(T
2
– T
1
) and P
1
/T
1
= P
2
/T
2
.
Heat supply at constant pressure for a perfect gas
The energy required to heat a given mass of gas at constant pressure: Q = m c
p
(T
2
– T
1
)

FV1201 Energy Transfer and Thermodynamics Definition of terms
Adiabatic process undergone by a perfect gas
Adiabatic means having no heat transfer, Q = 0. For a perfect gas, PV
γ
= constant
.
Thermodynamic cycle
It is the sequence of processes a control mass undergoes as it passes through a number of thermodynamic state and ultimately returns to its original state.
First Law of Thermodynamics
If a closed system is taken through a cycle, the net work done is directly proportional to the netheat transfer, i.e.,
Σ
W +
Σ
Q = 0.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
It is impossible to construct a system which will operate in a cycle, extract heat from a reservoir,and do an equivalent amount of work on the surrounding, or equivalent statement.
Heat engine
A device operates continuously, or cyclically, and produces a net work output while energytransfer by heating takes place across the boundary of the device.
Heat pump
A heat pump is a device which moves thermal energy from a lower-temperature source to ahigher-temperature sink, using a work input to do so.
Entropy
It is a thermodynamic property designated by S and is defined by dS = (
δ
Q/T)
rev
. Entropyremains constant during a reversible and adiabatic(isentropic) process.
Heating value of a fuel
It is the amount of heat released when a specified amount of fuel at room temperature iscompletely burned and the combustion products are cooled to the room temperature.
It is the maximum attainable temperature of the product gases under adiabatic operation of thereactor and complete combustion conditions.
Absolute pressure
It is the actual pressure at a given position and it is measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e.,absolute zero pressure).

FV1201 Energy Transfer and Thermodynamics Definition of terms
Perfect(ideal) fluid
A perfect(ideal) fluid has zero viscosity.
The mass flow rate is steady and the properties across any section at right angles to the flow areinvariable with time.
Uniform flow
The velocity vector at all points in the flow is same in magnitude and direction at any instant of time, (
t
(v/s)0
=
.
Laminar and turbulent flow
In a laminar flow, fluid particles travel in smooth lines parallel to the mean direction of flow. Inturbulent flow, eddies are present and particles travel in random path causing a rapid exchange of fluid momentum.
Continuity equation
It is the conservation of mass equation referred to in fluid mechanics. Net mass transfer to orfrom a system during a process equals to the net change in the total mass of the system.
Bemoulli’s equation
Bernoulli’s equation states that the total energy of each particle of a body of fluid is the sameprovided that no energy enters or leaves the system at any point. The total head(energy) is thesum of pressure, kinetic and potential head, each of which may vary from point to point.
Static pressure
Static pressure is the normal component of stress exerted across a surface moving with the fluid,especially across a surface which lies in the direction of the flow.
Dynamic pressure
The pressure produced when the flowing fluid is brought to rest by a frictionless process and isgiven by

P
dy
= ½
ρ
u
2
.
Stagnation pressure or total head pressure
Stagnation pressure is static pressure plus dynamic pressure. It is measured by a Pitot tube.
Dimensionless number (group)
Dimensionless number (group) is a product of several variables which combine to bedimensionless, e.g. Reynolds number and Froude number.