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Peter (Pyotr) Kropotkin - Anarchism (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition)

Peter (Pyotr) Kropotkin - Anarchism (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition)

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Peter Kropotkin's classic article on anarchism from the eleventh edition of Encyclopædia Britannica. Anarchism is "the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being."
Peter Kropotkin's classic article on anarchism from the eleventh edition of Encyclopædia Britannica. Anarchism is "the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being."

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9
I4
ANAPAEST-
ANARCHISM
was originally built in 1781 as a frontier fortress of the Turksagainst Russia. Three times captured by the Russians, in 1791,1807 and 1828, and twice restored by them, in 1792 and 1812,it was finally left in their hands by the treaty of Adrianople in1829. During the Crimean War its fortifications were destroyed(18j
)
by the Russians themselves.Pop. (1897) 6676.
ANAPAEST
(from Gr. hvh~araros, eversed), a metrical footconsisting of three syllables, the first two short and the thirdlong and accented; so called as the reverse of a dactyl,which has the first a long syllable, followed by two short ones.An anapaestic verse is one which only contains, or is mostlymade up of, anapaestic feet.
ANARCHISM
(from the Gr. irv-, and hpx4, contrary toauthority), the name given to a principle or theory of life andconduct under which society is conceived without government-harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submissionto law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreementsconcludedbetween the various groups, territorial and professional,freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption,as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs andaspirations of a civilized being. In a society developed on theselines, the voluntary associations which already now begin tocover all the fields of human activity would take a still greaterextension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all itsfunctions. They would represent an interwoven network, com-pose
1
of an infinite variety of groups and federations of all sizesand degrees, local, regional, national and international-tempxary or more or less permanent-for all possible purposes:production, consumption and exchange, communications,sanitary arrangements, education, mutual protection, defenceof the territory, and so on; and, on the other side, for thesatisfaction of an ever-increasing number of scientific, artistic,literary and sociable needs. Moreover, such a society wouldrepresent nothing immutable. On the contrary-as is seen inorganic life at large-harmony would (it is contended) resultfrom an ever-changing adjustment and readjustment of equili-brium between the multitudes of forces and influences, and thisadjustment would be the easier to obtain as none of the forceswould enjoy a special protection from the state.If, it is contended, society were organized on these principles,man would not be limited in the free exercise of his powers inproductive work by a capitalist monopoly, maintained by thestate; nor would he belinited in the exercise of his will by
a
fear of punishment, or by obedience towards individuals ormetaphysical entities, which both lead to depression of initiativeand servility of mind. He would be guided in his actions
by
his own understanding, which necessarily viould bear the impres-sion of a free action and reaction between his own self and theethical conceptions of his surroundings. Man would thus beenabled to obtain the full development of all his faculties,intellectual, artistic and moral, without being hampered byoverwork for the monopolists, or by the servility and inertiaof mind of the great number. He would thus be able to reachfull individualization, which is not possible either under thepresent system of individualism, or under any system of state-socialism in the so-called Volkstaat (popular state).The Anarchist writers consider, moreover, that their conceptionis not a Utopia, constructed on the a priori method, after a fewdesiderata have been taken as postulates. It is derived, theymaintain, from an analysis oftendencies that are at work already,even though state socialism may find a temporary favour withthe reformers. The progress of modern technics, which wonder-fully simplifies the production of all the necessaries of life;the growing spirit of independence, and the rapid spread of freeinitiative and free understanding in all branches of activity-including those which formerly were considered as the properattribution of church and state-are steadily reinforcing theno-government tendency.As to their economical conceptions, the Anarchists, in commonwith all Socialists, of whom they constitute the left wing, maintainthat the now prevailing system of private ownership in land, and
our
capitalist production for the sake of profits, represent
a
monopoly which runs against both the principles of justice andthe dictates of utility. They are the main obstacle whichprevents the successes of modern technics from being brought intothe service of all, so as to produce general well-being. TheAnarchists consider the wage-system and capitalist productionaltogether as an obstacle to progress. But they point out alsothat the state was, and continues to be, the chief instrumentfor permitting the few to monopolize the land, and the capitaliststo appropriate for themselves a quite disproportionate share ofthe yearly accumulated surplus of production. Consequently,while combating the present monopolization of land, andcapitalism altogether, the Anarchists combat with the sameenergy the state, as the main support of that system. Not thisor that special form, but the state altogether, whether it be amonarchy or even a republic governed by means of thereferemiurn.The state organization, having aiways been; both in ancientand modern history (Macedonian empire, Roman empire, modernEuropean states grown up on the ruins of the autonomous cities),the instrument for establishing monopolies in favour of the rulingminorities, cannot be made to work for the destruction of thesemonopolies. The Anarchists consider, therefore, that to handover to the state all the main sources of economical life-the land,the mines, the railways, banking, insurance, and so on-as alsothe management of all the main branches of industry, in additionto all the functions already accumulated in its hands (education,state-supported religions, defence of the territory, &c.), wouldmean to create
a
new instrument of tyranny. State capitalismwould only increase the powers of bureaucracy and capitalism.True progress lies in the direction of decentralization, bothterritorial and functional, in the development of the spirit oflocal and personal initiative, and of free federation from thesimple to the compound, in lieu of the present hierarchy from thecentre to the periphery.In common with most Socialists, the Anarchists recognizethat, like all evolution in nature, the slow evolution of societyis followed from time to time
by
periods of accelerated evolutionwhich are called revolutions; and they think that the era ofrevolutions is not yet closed. Periods of rapid changes willfollow the periods of slow evolution, and these periods must betaken advantage of-not for increasing and widening the powersof the state, but for reducing them, through the organizationin every township or commune of the local groups of producersand consumers, as also the regional, and eventually theinternational, federations of these groups.In virtue of the above principles the Anarchists refuse to beparty to the present state organization and to support it byinfusing fresh blood into it. They do not seek to constitute,and invite the working men not to constitute, political partiesin the parliaments. Accordingly, since the foundation of theInternational Working Men's Association in 1864-1866, theyhave endeavoured to promote their ideas directly amongst thelabour organizations and to induce those unions to a directstruggle against capital, without placing their faith in parlia-mentary legislation.The Hzstorical Development ofAnarchism.-The conception ofsociety just sketched, and the tendency which is its dynamicexpression, have always existed in mankind, in opposition tothe governing hierarchic conception and tendency-now theone and now the other taking the upper hand at different periodsof history. To the former tendency we owe the evolution, bythe masses themselves, of those institutions-the clan, thevillage community, the gild, the free medieval city-by meansof which the masses resisted the encroachments of the con-querorsqd he power-seeking minorities. The same tendencyasserted itself with great energy in the great religious movementsof medieval times, especially in the early movements of thereform and its forerunners. At the same time it evidently faundits expression in the writings of some thinkers, since the timesof Lao-tsze, although, owing to its non-scholastic and popularorigin, it obviously found less sympathy among the scholarsthan the opposed tendency.As has been pointed out by Prof. Adler in his Gesclzichte
des
 
ANARCHISM
Sozdalismus uttd Kommunismus, Aristippus (b. c. 430
B.c.),
cine of the founders of the Cyrenaic school, already taught thatthe wise must not give up their liberty to the state, and in replyto a question by Socrates he said that he did not desire to belongeither to the governing or the governed class. Such an attitude,however, seems to have been dictated merely by an Epicureanattitude towards the life of the masses.The best exponent of Anarchist philosophy in ancient Greece
was
Zeno (342-267 or
270
B.c.),
from Crete, the founder of theStoic philosophy, who distinctly opposed his conception of afree community without government to the state-Utopia ofPlato. He repudiated the omnipotence of the state, its inter-vention and regimentation, and proclaimed the sovereignty of themoral law of the individual-remarking already that, while thenecessary instinct of self-preservation leads man to egotism,nature has supplied a corrective to it by providing man withanother instinct-that of sociability. When men are reasonableenough to follow their natural instincts, they will unite acrossthe frontiers and constitute the Cosmos. They will have no needof law-courts or police, will have no temples and no publicworship, and use no money-free gifts taking the place of theexchanges. Unfortunately, the writings of Zeno have notreached us and are only known through fragmentary quotations.However, the fact that his very wording is similar to the wordingnow
in
use, shows how deeply is laid the tendency of humannature of which he was the mouth-piece.In medieval times we find the same views on the stateexpressed by the illustrious bishop of Alba, Marco Girolamo Vida,in his first dialogue De dignitate reipublicae (Ferd. Cavalli, inMem. dell' Zstituto Veneto, xiii.; Dr
E.
Nys, Researches in theHistory ofEconomics). But it is especially in several earlyChristian movements, beginningwith the 9th century in Armenia,and in the preachings of the early Hussites, particularly Chojecki,and the early Anabaptists, especially Hans Denk (cf. Keller,Ein Apostel derWiedertiiufer), that one finds the same ideasforcibly expressed-special stress being laid of course on theirmoral aspects.Rabelais and FCnelon, in their Utopias, have also expressedsimilar ideas, and they were also current in the 18th centuryamongst the French Encyclopaedists, as may be concluded fromseparate expressions occasionally met with in the writings ofRousseau, from Diderot's Preface to the Voyage of Bougainville,and so on. However, in all probability such ideas could not bedeveloped then, owing to the rigorous censorship of the RomanCatholic Church.These ideas found their expression later during the greatFrench Revolution.While the Jacobins did all in their powerto centralize everything in the hands of the government, itappears now, from recently published documents, that themasses of the people, in their municipalities and
''
sections,"accomplished a considerable constructive work. They appro-priated for themselves the election of the judges, the organizationof supplies and equipment for the army, as also for the largecities, work for the unemployed, the management of charities,and so on. They even tried to establish a direct correspondencebetween the 36,000 communes of France through the inter-mediary of a special board, outside the National Assembly (cf.Sigismund Lacroix, Actes de la commune de Paris).It was Godwin, in his Enquiry concerning Political Justice
(2
vols., 1793), who was the first to formulate the political andeconomical conceptions of Anarchism, even though he did notgive that name to the ideas developed in his remarkable work.Laws, he wrote, are not a product of the wisdom of our ancestors:they are the product of their passions, their timidity, theirjealousies and their ambition. The remedy they offer is worsethan the evils they pretend to cure.
If
and only if all laws andcourts were abolished, and the decisions in the arising contestswere left to reasonable men chosen for that purpose, real justicewould gradually be evolved. As to the state, Godwin franklyclaimed its abolition. A society, he wrote, can perfectly wellexist without any government: only the communities shouldbe small
and
perfectly autonomous. Speaking of property, hestated that the rights of every one
"
o every substance capable ofcontributing to the benefit of a human being
"
must be regulatedby justice alone: the substance must go
"
to him who mostwants it." His conclusion was Communism. Godwin, however,had not the courage to maintain his opinions. He entirelyrewrote later on his chapter on property and mitigated hisCommunist views in the second edition of Political Justice(8~0, 796).Proudhon was the first to use, in 1840 (Qu'est-ce que la pro-prigtt?? first memoir), the name of Anarchy with application tothe no-government state of society. The name of
"
Anarchists
"
had been freely applied during the French Revolution by theGirondists to those revolutionaries who did not consider that thetask of the Revolution was accomplished with the overthrowof Louis XVI., and insisted upon a series of economical measuresbeing taken (the abolition of feudal rights without redemption,the return to the village communities of the communal landsenclosed since 1669, the limitation of landed property to
120
acres, progressive income-tax, the national organization ofexchanges on a just value basis, which already received a begin-ning of practical realization, and so on).Now Proudhon advocated a society without government, andused the word Anarchy to describe it. Proudhon repudiated,as is known, all schemes of Communism, according to whichmankind would be driven into communistic monasteries orbarracks, as also all the schemes of state or state-aided Socialismwhich were advocated by Louis Blanc and the Collectivists. Whenhe proclaimed in his first memoir on property that "Propertyis theft," he meant only property in its present, Roman-law,sense of
"
ight of use and abuse
";
n property-rights, on the otherhand, understood in the limited sense of possession, he saw thebest protection against the encroachments of the state. At thesame time he did not want violently to dispossess the presentowners of land, dwelling-houses, mines, factories and so on.
He
preferred to attain the same end by rendering capital incapableof earning interest; and this he proposed to obtain by means ofa national bank, based on the mutual confidence of all those whoare engaged in production, who would agree to exchange amongthemselves their produces at cost-value, by means of labourcheques representing the hours of labour required to produceevery given commodity. Under such a system, which Proudhondescribed as
''
Mutuellisme," all the exchanges of services would bestrictly equivalent. Besides, such a bank would be enabled tolend money without interest, levying only something like
I
0/,,
or even less, for covering the cost of administration. Every onebeing thus enabled to borrow the money that would be requiredto buy a house, nobody would agree to pay any more a yearlyrent for the use of it.
A
general
"
social liquidation
"
wouldthus be rendered easy, without violent expropriation. The sameapplied to mines, railways, factories and so on.In a society of this type the state would be useless. The chiefrelations between citizens would be based on free agreement andregulated by mere account keeping. The contests might besettled by arbitration. A penetrating criticism of the state andall possible forms of government, and a deep insight into alleconomic problems, were well-known characteristics ofProudhon'swork.It is worth noticing that French mutualism had its precursorin England, in William Thompson, who began by mutualismbefore he became a Communist, and in his followers John Gray(ALecture on Human Happiness,
I
82
5;
The Social System,
I
83 I)and
J.
F. Bray (Labour's Wrongs and Labour's Remedy, 1839).It had also its precursor in America. Josiah Warren, who wasborn in 1798 (cf. W. Bailie, Josiah Warren, the First AmericanAnarchist, Boston,
goo),
and belonged to Owen's
"
NewHarmony," considered that the failure of this enterprise waschiefly due to the suppression of individuality and the lack ofinitiative and responsibility. These defects, he taught, wereinherent to every scheme based upon authority and the com-
'
munity of goods. He advocated, therefore, complete individualliberty. In 1827 he opened in Cincinnati a little country storewhich was the first
"
Equity Store," and which the people called
 
ANARCHISM
"
Time Store," because it was based on labour being exchangedhour for hour in all sorts
of
produce.
"
Cost-the limit ofprice," and consequently
"
no interest," was the motto of hisstore, and later on of his
"
Equity Village," near New York,which was still in existence in 1865. Mr Keith's
"
House ofEquity
"
at Boston, founded in 1855, is also worthy of notice.While the economical, and especially the mutual-banking,ideas of Proudhon found supporters and even a practical applica-tion in the United States, his political conception of Anarchyfound but little echo in France, where the Christian Socialismof Lamennais and the Fourierists, and the State Socialism ofLouis Blanc and the followers of Saint-Simon, were dominating.These ideas found, however, some temporary support among theleft-wing Hegelians in Germany, Moses Hess in 1843, and KarlGriin in 1845, who advocated Anarchism. Besides, the authori-tarian Communism of Wilhelm Weitling having given origin toopposition amongst the Swiss working men, Wilhelm Marr gaveexpression to it in the 'forties.On the other side, Individualist Anarchism found, also inGermany, its fullest expression in Max Stirner (Kaspar Schmidt),whose remarkable works (Der Einzige
ztnd
sein Eigenthum andarticles contributed to the Rheinische Zeitung) remained quiteoverlooked until they were brought into prominence by JohnHenry hlackay.Prof.
V.
Basch, in a very able introduction to his interestingbook, L'lndividualisme anarchiste: Max Stirner (~goq),hasshown how the development
of
the German philosophy from Kantto Hegel, and
"
the absolute
"
of Schelling and the Geist ofHegel, necessarily provoked, when the anti-Hegelian revolt began,the preaching of the same
"
absolute
"
n the camp of the rebels.This was done by Stirner, who advocated, not only a completerevolt against the state and against the servitude which authori-tarian Communism would impose upon men, but also the fullliberation of the individud from all social and moral bonds-therehabilitation of the
"
I,"
the supremacy of the individual,complete
"
a-moralism," and the
"
association of the egotists."The final conclusion of that sort of Individual Anarchism hasbeen indicated by Prof. Basch. It maintains that the aim of allsuperior civilization is, not to permit
all
members of the com-munity to develop in a normal way, but to permit certain betterendowed individuals
"
fully to develop," even at the cost of thehappiness and the very existence of the mass of mankind. It isthus a return towards the most common individualism, advocatedby all the would-be superior minorities, to which indeed man owesin his history precisely the state and the rest, which theseindividualists combat. Their individualism goes so far as to endin a negation of their own starting-point,-to say nothing of theimpossibility for the individual to attain a really full developmentin the conditions of oppression of the masses by the
"
beautifularistocracies." His development would remain uni-lateral.This is why this direction of thought, notwithstanding its un-doubtedly correct and useful advocacy of the full developmentof each individuality, finds a hearing only in limited artistic andliterary circles.Anarchism in the International Working Men's Association.-A general depression in the propaganda of all fractions ofSocialism followed, as is known, after the defeat of the uprising
of
the Paris working men in June 1848 and the fall of theRepublic.
All
the Socialist press was gagged during the reactionperiod, which lasted fully twenty years. Nevertheless, evenAnarchist thought began to make some progress, namely in thewritings of Bellegarrique (Cceurderoy), and especially JosephDCjacque (Les Lazarkennes, L'Humanisphkre, an Anarchist-Communist Utopia, lately discovered and reprinted). TheSocialist movement revived only after 1864, when some Frenchworking men, all
"
mutualists," meeting in London during theUniversal Exhibition with English followers of Robert Owen,founded the International Working
Men's
Association. Thisassociation developed very rapidly and adopted a policy of directeconomical struggle against capitalism, without interfering inthe political parliamentary agitation, and this policy was followed
until
1871.
However, after the Franco-German War, when theInternational Association was prohibited in France after th,uprising of the Commune, the German working men, who hac,received manhood suffrage for elections to the newly constitutedimperial parliament, insisted upon modifying the tactics of theInternational, and began to build up a Social-Democraticpolitical party. This soon led to a division in the Working Men'sAssociation, and the Latin federations, Spanish, Italian, Belgianand Jurassic (France could not be represented), constitutedamong themselves a Federal union which broke entirely with theMarxist general council of the International. Within thesefederations developed now what may be described as modernAnarchism. After the names of
"
Federalists
"
and
"
Anti-authoritarian~ had been used for some time by these federationsthe name of
"
Anarchists," which their adversaries insisted uponapplying to them, prevailed, and finally it was revindicated.Bakunin
(q.v.)
soon became the leading sflrit among theseLatin federations for the development of the principles ofAnarchism, which he did in a number of writings, pamphletsand letters. He demanded the complete abolition of the state,which-he wrote-is a product of religion, belongs to a lowerstate of civilization, represents the negation of liberty, and spoilseven that which it undertakes to do for the sake of general well-being. The state was anhistoritally necessary evil, but itscomplete extinction will be, sooner or later, equally necessary.Repudiating all legislation, even when issuing from universalsuffrage, Bakunin claimed for each nation, each region and eachcommune, full autonomy, so long as it is not a menace to itsneighbours, and full independence for the individual, addingthat one becomes really free only when, and in proportion as,all others are free. Free federations of the communes wouldconstitute free nations.As to his economical conceptions, Bakunin described himself,in common with his Federalist comrades of the International(CCsar De Paepe, James Guillaume SchwitzguCbel), a
"
Collecti-vist Anarchist "-not in the sense of Vidal and Pecqueur in the'forties, or of their modern Social-Democratic followers, but toexpress a state of things in which all necessaries for productionare owned in common by the Labour groups and the free com-munes, while the ways of retribution of labour, Communist orotherwise, would be settled by each group for itself. Socialrevolution, the near approach of which was foretold at that timeby all Socialists, would be the means of bringing into life the newconditions.The Jurassic, the Spanish, and the Italian federations andsections of the International Working Men's Association, as alsothe French, the German and the American Anarchist groups,were for the next years the chief centres of Anarchist thoughtand propaganda. They refrained from any participation inparliamentary politics, and always kept in close contact with theLabour organizations. However, in the second half of the'eighties and the early 'nineties of the19th century, when theinfluence of the Anarchists began to be felt in strikes, in the1st of May demonstrations, where they promoted the idea of ageneral strike for an eight hours' day, and in the anti-militaristpropaganda in the army, violent prosecutions were directedagainst them, especially in the Latin countries (including physicaltorture in the Barcelona Castle) and the United States (theexecution of five Chicago Anarchists in 1887). Against theseprosecutions the Anarchists retaliated by acts of violence whichin their turn were followed by more executions from above, andnew acts of revenge from below. This created in the generalpyblic the impression that violence is the substance of Anarchism,a view repudiated by its supporters, who hold that in realityviolence is resorted to by all .parties in proportion as their open
,
action is obstructed by repression, and exceptional laws renderthem outlaws. (Cf. Anarchism and Outrage, by C.
M.
Wilson, andReport ofthe Spanish Atrocities Committee, in
"
Freedom Pam-phlets
";
A
Concise History ofthe Great Trial ofthe ChicagoAnarchists, by Dyer Lum (New York, 1886); The ChicagoMartyrs: Speeches, &c.)
l
1
It
is important to remember that the term "Anarchist
"
is
inevitably rather loosefy used in public, inconnexion with
the
authors

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