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Gold Chemistry Leaching Processes CHEMISTRY of the CIP PROCESS Cyanide

Gold Chemistry Leaching Processes CHEMISTRY of the CIP PROCESS Cyanide

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Published by: AFLAC ............ on Aug 14, 2009
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06/27/2013

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7.1Chapter 7
CHEMISTRY OF THE CIP PROCESS
Richard E Browner____________________________________________________________________
 INTRODUCTION
Gold, the only yellow metal, derives its name from the old Englishword
Geolu
meaning yellow. Its chemical symbol Au is from theLatin word for gold,
 Aurum
.Atomic No 79Atomic wt 197Density 19.32 g cm-3 The units used to describe gold content and purity are numerous.The ore is usually referred to in grams per tonne or ounces pertonne where1 gram = 0.03215 ounces (troy).Assay values are given in parts per million by weight which areequivalent to grams per tonne.Bullion is expressed as fineness, that is, parts per thousand. Forexample the Australian nugget gold coins have a fineness of 999.9.Caratage is used when the gold is alloyed with another metal.Twenty-four carat is pure gold or 1000 fine. The proportion of 24gives the gold content by weight.Figure 7.1 World gold supply 1989: 1948 Tonnes
15%31%13%8%7%5%3%2112210%USACanadaAustraliaSouth AfricaOther AfricaUSSR SalesBrazilOther Latin AmericaEuropeOther AsiaPhilippinesOther OceaniaPNG
 
 
7.2The world gold supply for 1989 is shown in figure 7.1 and theworld gold demand for the same year is shown in figure 7.2.Figure 7.2 World gold Demand 1989: 1948 tonnes
Medals1%Investment19%Industry9%Coins5%Jewellery66%
 This chapter will look at the chemistry of the extraction of gold bythe CIP process. We will progress through the unit processes foundon a typical CIP plant;1) leaching,2) carbon adsorption,3) elution,4) electrowinning,5) smelting6) carbon regeneration.
 
7.3
LEACHING
 The CIP/CIL process as used today is a relatively new technologywith the first full scale plant being commissioned in 1973.
HISTORY OF GOLD LEACHING
 Pre 1890 - Chlorine/Chloride - Zinc cementation.1880 - Davis patented wood charcoal torecover gold from chlorinated solutions.1891 - Davis process used at Mount Morgan,Australia.1887 - MacArthur and Forrest Brothers usedcyanide to dissolve gold.1889 - First commercial use of cyanide -Crown Mine, New Zealand.1894 - Johnson patented use of wood charcoalfor the recovery of gold fromcyanide solution.1916 - Gold extraction using carbon at YuanmiMine, Australia.1939 - Chapman patented flotation of carbonafter adsorption.1950 - Fruit pit carbon used experimentally,Getchell Mine, Nevada, USA.1952 - Zadra elution process developed.1973 - Carbon-in-Pulp introduced atHomestake Mine, South Dakota, USA.Developed from Marsden and House (1992) and McDougall(1991).

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