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POM Lecture (20)

POM Lecture (20)

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Published by: muneerpp on Aug 14, 2009
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RBS Chapter 7 Layout design
Unit 2Management of Conversion SystemChapter 7: Layout designsLesson 21 -
Layout conceptsLearning Objectives
After reading this lesson you will be able to understand
Layout planning
Layout as an indicator of competitiveness
Layout typesToday we will learn the meaning of layout planning and the question it addresses. Wewill also learn the four basic layout types and their applicability in various areas.Dear students, all of us have visited a cafeteria or a hospital at some point of time. Haveyou ever wondered how such activities are efficiently co-coordinated? Well, layout playsan important role in this behalf.To start with, one can state that, Layout planning involves decisions about the physicalarrangement of economic activity centers within a facility. An economic activity center can be anything that consumes space: a person or group of people, a teller window, amachine, a workstation, a department, a cafeteria or storage room, and so on. The goal of layout planning is to allow workers and equipment to operate most effectively. Ingeneral, the inputs to the layout decision are as follows:1. Specification of the objectives and corresponding criteria to be used to evaluatethe design. The amount of space required, and the distance that must be traveled between elements in that layout, are common basic criteria2. Estimates of product or service demand on the system1
RBS Chapter 7 Layout design3. Processing requirements in terms of number of operations and amount of flow between the elements in that layout4. Space requirements for the elements in that layout5. Space availability within the facility itself, or if this is a new facility, possible building configurations.Before making a decision regarding physical arrangement, few questions must beaddressed.Can you guess some of the pertinent issues? Well, the first and foremost question could be:1.
What centers the layout should include
? Centers should reflect processdecisions and maximize productivity. For example, a central storage area for toolsis most efficient for certain processes, but keeping tools at individual workstationsmakes more sense for other processes.2.
How much space and capacity does each center need
? Inadequate space canreduce productivity, deprive employees of privacy, and even create health andsafety hazards. However, excessive space is wasteful, can reduce productivity,and can isolate employees unnecessarily.3.
How each center’s space should be configured
? The amount of space, its shape,and the elements in a center are interrelated. For example, placement of a desk and chair relative to the other furniture is determined by the size and shape of theoffice, as well as the activities performed there. Providing a pleasing atmospherealso should be considered as part of the layout configuration decisions, especiallyin retail outlets and offices.4.
Where each center should be located
? Location can significantly affect productivity. For example, employees who must frequently interact with oneanother face to face should be replaced in a central location rather than inseparate, remote locations to reduce time lost traveling back and forth.Dear friends, now we are in a position to focus on the main Layout Objectives2
RBS Chapter 7 Layout design
Layout Objectives:
1. Simplify the manufacturing process.2. Build in flexibility.3. Hold down equipment investment.4. Use door area economically.5. Keep employees safe.6. Reduce materials handling.7. Achieve a more productive facility!8. Organize your layout projects!Ponder for a moment, dear students.
Are You Involved with:
 process changes?
updating technology?
new installations?Thus, we see that the location of a center has two dimensions, i.e.:1) Relative location, or the placement of a center relative to other centers,and2) Absolute location, or the particular space that the center occupies withinthe facility.
Layout reflects competitive priorities
Layout choices can help us immensely in communicating an organization’s product planand competitive priorities. Layout has many practical and strategic implications. Altering3

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