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Piagam Madinah

Piagam Madinah

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Published by malaymelayu
Penerbit boleh dihubungi di malaymelayu@gmail.com
Penerbit boleh dihubungi di malaymelayu@gmail.com

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: malaymelayu on Aug 14, 2009
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03/07/2014

 
 EO\I WJELJN WHIDIF FILHEIC 
Niqqhf Icfil
Lh|j{mjficnie o`jc Fj`ixz li{hwili |jnq iqi` kj{kiciqi Heddj{hq
Whidif Filheic, lh|z`hq lie lhti{|inie o`jc Eikh Fzciffil ze|znti{di ejdi{i&no|i Filheic xied qj{ifih 97 777 o{ied lie kj{kh`iedidifi wili |icze 2;;F, qjkzic lonzfje wo`h|hn&wj{`jfkidiie xiedaznzw fjedidzfnie% Lintiie W{objqo{ F% Cifhlz``ic kiciti hiwj{`jfkidiie kj{|z`hq xied wj{|ifi
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lh lzehi, ili iqiqexi%‐Wj{`jfkidiie I|cjeq‖ I{hq|o|`j
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xied |j{|z`hq lh i|iq nj{|iq wiwh{zq,lhmzfwih o`jc qjo{ied fzki`hdc N{hq|hie kj{kiedqi Ifj{hni lh Fjqh{wili |icze 9387, lie lh|j{kh|nie wili |icze 9389, kznie`ic qjkzicwj{`jfkidiie ‑ Hi qjkzic nj|j{iedie fjedjeih wj{`jfkidiie ejdi{i&no|i I|cjeq% \z`hqie&|z`hqie wj{zeliedie li`if wje|ilkh{ie fiqxi{ini|nzeo mzdi |j`ic lhmzfwih, |j|iwh |hili qi|z wze xied ko`jc lh|in{hbnieqjkidih wj{`jfkidiie% Whidif Filheic ili`ic xied wj{|ifi% Kicnie
 Ifj{haie Aoeq|h|z|hoe‖ 
9434 xied lhieddiw o`jc nziqi&nziqi Ki{i|qjkidih ‐qjkzic lonzfje fici wje|hed lzehi Ki{i| • wj{`jfkidiieejdi{i kj{|z`hq xied |j{|zi lie fiqhc lhdzeinie cheddi nj qii| heh‖
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wze lhlicz`zh o`jc Whidif Filheic qj`ifi `jkhc li{h 9777 |icze) Kjdh|z mzdi ljedie wj{hqx|hci{ie cin iqiqh bjzli` Heddj{hq,
Fidei Ai{|j{‖ 
9;9:, xied lhlicz`zh o`jc Whidif Filheic qj`ifi cifwh{ jeif nz{ze)Njwje|hedie Whidif Filheic kznie qicimi nj{iei hi wj{`jfkidiiekj{|z`hq xied wj{|ifi> hi mzdi folje li`if j{|hni|i hi lhti{|inie ze|znqjkzic fiqxi{ini| fimfzn, fjfkj{hnie cin njqifi{i|iie njwiliqj|hiw ti{diejdi{i, lie fjfkj{hnie fj{jni cin ze|zn kj{qzi{i li`ifz{zqie&z{zqie wjfj{he|icie, qjkidihfiei xied inie nh|i `hci| eie|h%Ljedie fjedifkh` nh{i qjfzi heh, ili`ic fjedcih{ienie kh`ifieiwjfhfwhe&wjfhfwhe lie wjez`hq&wjez`hq Hq`if xied kj{ainiw liefjez`hq |je|ied ejdi{i Hq`if, mi{ied qjni`h fj{zmzn njwili lonzfjexied fjedielzedh khkh|&khkh| wo`h|hn Hq`if heh%Wj{`z lhhedi|nie kiciti Fzciffil, qj|j`ic lhiedni| fjemilh eikh,fjfkiainie ticxz&ticxz \zcie njwili wjelzlzn Fjnic qj`ifi lzikj`iq |icze qjkj`zf kj`hiz lie wi{i wjedhnz|exi kj{chm{ic nj Xi|c{hk,;97 ki|z nj z|i{i Fjnic% Fhqh njeikhieexi |j{zq kj{`iemz|ie qj`ifiqjwz`zc |icze qjcheddi`ic kj`hiz kj{mixi fjexifwihnie njqj`z{zcie{hqi`ic qzah njwili o{ied&o{ied I{ik lie mzdi qj`z{zc fiezqhi qjkidihnh|ik \zcie xied |j{inch{, hih|z Yz{ie% Fini, Whidif Filheic heh |hlinfzn|ifil li`if j{|hni|i hi |hlin fjedielzedh njqjfzi i{icie ze|znfjedz{zq qjqjkzic ejdi{i qjkidihfiei xied |j{nielzed lh li`ifYz{ie% Xi|c{hk njfzlhieexi lhnjei`h qjkidih ‐No|i Eikh‖, i|iz{hedniqexi Filheic% Qjkik wjedchm{icie nj{iei fjehedni|exiwjeje|iedie do`oedie i{hq|on{iqh Yz{ihqx |j{ciliw imi{ie Eikh, lie mzdi nj{iei qhniw wjej{hfiie xied lh|zemznnie o`jc qjkicidhiewjelzlzn Xi|c{hk xied fjezeihnie cimh lh Fjnic wili tin|z h|z%
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Njqj`z{zcie |jnq li`if Whidif Filheic |j`ic lhciqh`nie qjfz`i,wj{ni|iie ljfh wj{ni|iie, o`jc Hkez Hqciy lie Ikz Zkihl li`if kznzfj{jni fiqhed&fiqhed, li{hwili lonzfje iqi` xied lhqhfwie lielhmidi o`jc Hkez Ikh Nch|cific%
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Whidif heh |j{lh{h li{hwili <4 biqi`, |j|iwh W{ob% Cifhlz``ic fjedh{iexiqjkidih :; biqi`, fjedhnz| nijlic wjeofko{ie xied kj{kj}i%
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Biqi`9, ; lie 18 fjexi|inie wjfkje|znie qjkzic ejdi{i&kiedqi xiedkj{liz`i| ljedie qi|z njti{diejdi{iie, xied |j{lh{h li{hwili wj`kidihnofzeh|h, |j{z|ifiexi I{ik Fzq`hf li{h Fjnic #
Fzcimh{he
i|iz Hfhd{ie(,I{ik Fzq`hf li{h Xi|c{hk #
 Ieqi{ 
i|iz Wjeo`oed(, do`oedie foeo|jhq Xi|c{hk xied `ihe #qjwj{|h Xiczlh(, lie do`oedie xied fiqhc kj{idifiwidie wili nj|hni h|z% Fj{jni fjfkje|zn qi|z nj{inxi|ie #li`ifhq|h`ic I{ik,
zffic
(, fjfwzexih cin lie |ieddzedmitik xiedqifi{i|i, lie kj{kj}i li{hwili {inxi| ejdi{i `ihe%Wj{ci|hnie kiciti nj|hdi&|hdi biqi` heh |j`ic fj`ich{nie ejdi{i&kiedqifolje xied wj{|ifi lh lzehi% Ti`izwze Filheic ciexi`ic qjkzicno|i, Whidifexi liwi| kj{|icie qjcheddi kj{fz`iexi Lheiq|h Zfixxicwili |icze 9229% Qjmi{itie ki{i| wz`i fjelinti ‐Wj{miemhie&wj{miemhieTjq|wci`hi‖ 92<3 qjkidih wj{fz`iie j{i ejdi{i&kiedqi folje%
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Whidif Filheic fjedjfzninie qjkzic q|{zn|z{ wj{qjnz|zie ljedienziqi kj{wzqi|, xied |j{lh{h li{hwili wj`kidih nikh`ic lh wj`kidihlij{ic xied fjfkje|zn zeh|&zeh| lie fjfh`hnh nziqi iz|oeofh li`ifz{zqie&z{zqie |j{|je|z kj{nih|ie qoqhi`, njkzlixiie, lie njwz|zqienjidifiie% Wjfkj{hie nziqi iz|oeofh lij{ic heh lhz`iedh ze|zn qj|hiwlij{ic #Biqi`&biqi` 1 cheddi 99 lie ;2 cheddi 1:(% Qjkjei{exi, kiexinwj{ni{i xied lhz{zqnie o`jc zeh|&zeh| iz|oeofh heh, njazi`h xiedfj`hki|nie njqj`ifi|ie lie wj{|icieie ejdi{i #Biqi`&biqi` 94, 12 #i(lie <4(% Wjfzqi|ie wj{ni{i&wj{ni{i heh lh|jnienie li`if Biqi`&biqi` 91,9:, 94 lie <<% Ciexi mhni njq&njq wj{|hnihie |hlin liwi| lhqj`jqihnieo`jc zeh|&zeh| heh, fini ki{z`ic njwz|zqie wj{khai{iie lh{zmzn njwiliEikh, xied fjfh`hnh njwz|zqie fzn|ifil #Biqi`&biqi` ;1 lie <9(%Kjei{`ic njexi|iie W{ob% Cifhlz``ic, ‐• wj{`jfkidiie ki{z heh fjfkiti kj{qifi&qifi ljedieexi wj{zkicie lie njfimzie xiedqiedi| wje|hed, lie && njwili \ieic I{ik qjnz{ied&nz{iedexi && qiedi|{jro`zqhoej{, ljedie fjexjlhinie heq|h|zqh itif ze|zn fjfkj{hnienjilh`ie njwili {inxi|, qzwixi qj|hiw o{ied |hlin kj{qjelh{hie li`iffjeliwi|nie njilh`ie, i|iz wi`hed kihn wze, fjeliwi|nie njilh`ieljedie qonoedie ic`h nj`zi{diexi% Heoriqh xied qhdehbhnie heh • qifiqjni`h |j`ic fjeifi|nie nj|jdiedie lie njniaizie ie|i{i nikh`ic, lie|j`ic fjej`z{nie iqiq kidh qjkzic heq|h|zqh xied `jkhc `ziq, xinehqjkzic Ejdi{i%‖
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Ci{zq lhbicifh kiciti njqj|hiie fiqxi{ini| fimfzn heh njwiliEjdi{i |j`ic fjfkje|zn eiqhoei`hqfj, i|iz `jkhc |jwi| `idh wi|{ho|hqfj,xied lhinzh o`jc Hq`if, kj{kj}i ljedie lintiie qjkh`iedie wjelznzedhljo`odh Fzq`hf% Heh qj`i{h ljedie imi{ie li`if ixi| Yz{ie, ‐Ticih zfi|fiezqhi) Qjqzeddzcexi Nifh |j`ic fjeahw|inie nifz li{h `j`inh liewj{jfwzie xied qifi lie Nifh |j`ic fjemilhnie nifz wj`kidih
;
 
kiedqi lie kj{qznz wzin, qzwixi nifz kj{njei`&njei`ie ie|i{i qi|zljedie xied `ihe% Qjqzeddzcexi qjfz`hi&fz`hi nifz lh qhqh I``ic, o{iedxied wi`hed kj{|inti lh ie|i{i nifz%‖
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 \j{liwi| lzi wz`zc lij{ic, fiqhed&fiqhed ljedie qjo{ied nj|zi#
eiyhk
( lie wjeo`oed nj|zi #
–i{hb 
(, lie qjkzic |jfwi| kj{zelhed#
qiyhbic
(% No|i Filheic wili nj|hni heh fjfwzexih wowz`iqh wjelzlznqjnh|i{ 97 777 o{ied% Li{hwili mzf`ic heh, kjkj{iwi {i|zq o{ied qicimixied Fzq`hf> qjwi{zc li{hwiliexi ili`ic o{ied&o{ied Xiczlh xiedfjedjqinie \zcie, lie qj`jkhcexi ili`ic do`oedie ljedienjwj{aixiie wo`h|jhqfj%
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Fjei{hn ze|zn lhwj{ci|hnie kiciti Whidif Filheic fjej|iwniewj{qifiie cin ic`h&ic`hexi lie fj`helzedh fj{jni li{hwili wjeheliqie#Biqi` 92(% Filheic fjedhqx|hci{nie wj{qizli{iie qjqifi o{ied&o{iedkj{hfie lie fjfkj{hnie cin lie qonoedie njwili qj|hiw o{ied ze|znfj`helzedh fiei&fiei helhrhlz xied kznie fzqzc #Biqi` 9:(% Hi mzdifjej|iwnie qzwixi wj{|o`oedie lhkj{hnie njwili ic`h&ic`hexi xiedfjeieddzed cz|ied i|iz fjedciliwh fiqi`ic&fiqi`ic njtiediefj`hki|nie tied |jkzqie i|iz cz|ied li{ic #Biqi` 9;(% Hi fjejdicwj{|o`oedie i|iz wj{`helzedie |j{ciliw qjqjo{ied wjfkzezc #Biqi`;;(%Cin njfiezqhiie xied ifi| wje|hed lhkj{hnie li`if Biqi` ;: lh fieinofzeh|h&nofzeh|h fiqxi{ini| lhmifhe njkjkiqie fj{jni ze|znfjedifi`nie idifi fiqhed&fiqhed% Hfw`hniqh biqi` heh hi`ic, qj|hiwhelhrhlz mzdi kjkiq ze|zn fjfh`hc idifiexi, qj`i{h ljedie imi{ie&imi{ie Yz{ie xied mj`iq%
^97V
Qi|z `idh w{heqhw wjedjeli`hie z{zqie ejdi{i xied wje|hed hi`icwj{zelhedie ljedie {inxi| li`if qjfzi z{zqie% Heh lhexi|inie li`ifBiqi` 14#i(% \hlin qjwj{|h li`if o{diehqiqh wo`h|hn ljfon{iqh folje,qzi{i {inxi|,
ros wowz`h
, lhkj{hnie eh`ih xied wi`hed |heddh, |hlin nh{iqifili hi qzi{i xied cin lie kjei{ i|iz |hlin% Heh`ic njqh`iwie iqiqljfon{iqh Ki{i|% Qi|z `idh w{heqhw wje|hed wjfj{he|icie xied ilh` hi`ic|hlin fj`helzedh qjqjo{ied xied fj`inznie nj|hlinilh`ie i|iz |j{`hki|ljedie qi`ic `inz% Li`if Whidif Filheic, heh lhexi|inie li`if Biqi`<4%Qjkidihfiei xied |j`ic qixi exi|inie lh i|iq, wj{`jfkidiie hehfj{zwinie
hm|hcil 
 Fzciffil li`if fjfbo{fz`iqh wj{`jfkidiieiwikh`i kj`hiz kj{ciliwie ljedie aiki{ie fje|ilkh{ ejdi{i&no|iFilheic% Wili tin|z heh, kj`hiz kj`zf `idh fjej{hfi Yz{ie xied`jedniw% O`jc xied ljfhnhie, kj`hiz wj{`z fjedifkh` nh{i ili| {jqiflie w{in|hn&w{in|hn xied |j`ic lhifi`nie qjai{i |z{ze&|jfz{ze, liekj`hiz fj`inznieexi% Li`if fiei&fiei njiliie qjni`hwze, qjfziwj{`jfkidiie |hlin fzn|ifil li`if j{|hni|i hi fjq|h`ic lhqjqzihnieljedie wj{jli{ie }ifie%Ah{h njwzinie o{ied I{ik liwi| lhnjqie li`if lzi biqi` lh fieiqjqjo{ied helhrhlz ci{zq lhcznzf kj{qifi&qifi ic`h nj`zi{diexilhqjkiknie mjeixic xied lh`inznieexi #Biqi`&biqi` ;: lie 12#k((% Heh mj`iq kj{aieddic ljedie biqi` xied `ihe xied fjexi|inie kiciti
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