Then, critical processes are identified and the people are trained in the skills required. The monitoringof the performance of the new product in the field is done to verify whether the customers are gettingthe value for the money and whether the product is reliable.Thus strategic Quality planning is an activity that extends from collection of customer requirements tocustomer satisfaction determination.
3. What do you understand by quality circles?
Quality Circles are the small groups which are formed voluntarily by workers or employees of aspecific location to carry out systematic improvements. QC Circle movement started in Japan in 50sand spread to all the countries. Some of the unique features of QC Circles are a) the voluntary natureof the circles b) the meetings held weekly outside the office hours c) the use of 7 QC Tools to solvethe problems. Each circle takes about 3 to 4 weeks to solve a problem which may something to dowith poor housekeeping or erratic machine and then present the solutions to the management.All countries including India hold annual contests for encouraging the Quality Circles. Apart fromworkers, many companies even encourage their staff and managers to take part in Quality circles.
4. Explain any two factors that link TQM and human resources.
TQM is anchored on better employee involvement in solving problems which occur day to day in thecompany. HR is interested in involvement and engagement of people in productive tasks.TQM treats all employees as equal. Respect for individual is enshrined as one of the principles of TQM and that is how the concepts of brainstorming or Kaizen are evolved. Human ResourcesManagement works in the same principle to treat all employees alike and in a fair manner.
5. What is re-engineering?
Re engineering also called as Business process Reengineering (BPR) is the intervention to drasticallychange the processes and redesign them to satisfy the customer expectations of Quality and delivery.Reengineering became necessary as the processes in the organization tended to accumulate lot of non value added activities resulting in increased costs and delays. For instance, the billing process or a complaint management process became so slow that many times the customers were frustrated.But, re-engineering looks at the processes from the angle of throughput and ruthlessly attacks delaysand bottlenecks. The advocates of Re engineering like Michael Hammer argue that the drasticchanges help the company to shed the flab and become more efficient and invariably lead the effortsto reduce headcount. Some TQM experts believe that such drastic changes often have limitations andare not sustainable in the long run. They also advise involvement of employees in making theprocesses more efficient rather than looking at them as part of the problem. While BPR was verypopular in the 80s its popularity has declined as the companies felt the soft aspects are ignored by theBPR methodology which is focused on the process velocity and cost /time reduction. Theindiscriminate use of BPR consultants by some management to justify their decision to reducemanpower also cast a shadow on re engineering efforts. Still, Re engineering remains a viable optionin case the process is full of chronic problems and the competition is way ahead like in Air India or some nationalized banks.