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Physical Measurements on Fabric_Textile Testing_By_AbuBakkar Marwat

Physical Measurements on Fabric_Textile Testing_By_AbuBakkar Marwat

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Published by Abu Bakkar
Different Tensile strength, tear strength and seam strength tests....

For more details, plz don't hesitate to contact:
Different Tensile strength, tear strength and seam strength tests....

For more details, plz don't hesitate to contact:

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Published by: Abu Bakkar on Aug 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05) 
Physical Measurements on Fabrics 
   7   5  m  m
Grab test
   1   5   0  m  m
25 mm
Fabric Strength:
Fabric tensile strength
Fabric seam strength
Fabric bursting strength
Fabric tear strength
Fabric stretch and recovery
1- Fabric tensile strength depends upon:
Raw material
Yarn strength (twist: more twist for more strength)
Fabric construction (
: plane weave is stronger than floats-satin, sateen which areweaker,
low density cause weave slippage which result in seam slippage)
Finish applied (resin finish improves weave slippage)
Adverse of “finishing” process
1.1- Measurement of fabric tensile strength:
1.1.1- Strip Test: (British) BS 2576 
In this method a fabric strip is extended to its breaking point by a suitable mechanical meanswhich can record the breaking load and extension. Five fabric samples both in warp and weftdirection are prepared with each not containing the same longitudinal threads. Samples are prepared60mm x 300mm and then frayed to get 50mm wide specimen. The rate of extension is set to50mm/min & gauge length is 200mm. pretension is 1% of the probable breaking load. Any breaksthat occur within 5mm of the jaws or at loads substantially lessthan the average should be rejected. The mean breaking forceand mean extension %age of initial length are reported.
1.1.2- Grab Test: (U.S) ASTM D 1682
The grab test uses jaw faces which are considerably narrower tan the fabric, soavoiding the need to fray the fabric to width and hence making it a simpler andquicker test to carry out. The sample used is 100mm x 150mm. jaws are 25mmsquare which stress only the central 25mm of the fabric. A line is drawn 37.5mmfrom the edge of fabric to assist it in clamping so the same set of threads are clampedin both jaws. The gauge length is 75mm and speed is adjusted so that the sample isbroken in 20±3s.In this test, there is a certain amount of assistance from yarns adjacent to thecentral stressed area so that the strength measured is higher than for a 25mm frayedstrip test.
2- Fabric Seam strength:
Seam failure occurs due to a number of causes:
Sewing thread either wears out or fails before the fabric does.
Yarns making up the fabric are broken or damaged by the sewing needle.
Seam slippage occurs.These problems depends the sewing machine used, sewing thread, sewing speed, size of sewingneedle and stitch length.
clampsFixed jaw
Load cellConstantrate of elongation
Strip tester
   3   0   0  m  m   W  a  r  p
   3   0   0  m  m
Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05) 
Physical Measurements on Fabrics 
2.1- Seam slippage:
Seam slippage is the condition where a seam sewn in the fabric opens under load. Some of thisgap may close on removal of the load but some of it may be a permanent deformation.
2.2- Causes of seam slippage:
Fabric made from slippery yarns (filament yarns-round cross section & smooth surface)
Low density- warp & weft interlacing is low
Seam details: (
seam allowance, seam type, stitch type, stitch rate & stitch length
allowanceis more-more seam slippage, seam slippage is more in case of chin stitch than in lock stitch,normal stitch length-5 stitches per cm)
Type of sewing machine
Sewing needle number & sewing needle adjustment/height
Sewing thread used-thread having smooth surface cause seam slippage
High tension of sewing thread causes
seam puckering
2.3- Seam slippage tests:
2.3.1- Seam strength test-BS 3320
Five warp and five weft specimens each 100mm x350mm are used. Each sample is folded 100mm fromone end and a seam is sewed 20 mm from the foldline (using a special sewing thread and sewingmachine settings), the folded part is then cut away12mm from the folded edge and leaving the seam8mm from the cut edge. From this sample 150mmlength without seam is cut (having same warp or weftthreads) and is stretched in tensile tester up to a loadof 200N and a force elongation curve is drawn.The remaining sample with seam is then tested inthe same way making sure that the force elongationcurve starts from the same zero position. Horizontalseparation between the curves as shown in Fig. is then due toopening of the seam. A standard strength tester with 25mm grabtest jaws and 75mm gauge length is used.In order to find the force required to open the seam,separation (A) of the curves at 5 N is measured and this distance(A) is added to the “seam opening” (6mm usually. Next a pointis found where separation between the curves is “A+6mm”. Thevalue of load at this point is the seam strength. If the curves donot reach the specified separation (A+6mm) below 200 N thenthe result is recorded as “more than 200 N”.The US Standards ASTM D 434 and ASTM D 4034 arevery similar to the above method except that a load of 1 lbf (4.4N) is used for correcting for slack in the system instead of 5N. The required result is the load to produce a seam opening of 6mm (0.25in.).
2.3.2- Fix load method (seam slippage-grab test):Principle:
A strip of fabric is folded and stitched across its width. A force is then applied to the strip atright angles to the seam using grab-test jaws and the extent to which the seam opens for a givenforce is measured.The force applied depends upon the end use of the fabric under test. Test force for ladiesdresses, cushions and tickings-80N; for greater stresses such as in overcoats, suits and overalls-120Nand for considerable seam strength as in upholstery-175N is used.
0 25 50 75 100
Elongation mm
   F  o  r  c  e   N 
   0   5   1   0   0   2   0   0
AA+6mmMeasuredforceWith seamWithout seam
Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05) 
Physical Measurements on Fabrics 
Upholstery seam slippage
25 mm
Five samples each for warp and weft of 200mm x 100mm are used. Each sample is folded in ahalf and a seam is machined 20mm from the fold, using the special sewing thread and a stitch rate of 5 stitches per cm. The folded edge is then cut off 12mm from the fold line. 25mm wide jaws with agauge length of 75mm and at a speed of 50mm/min are used. Load is increased to either 80, 120 or175 N depending on the end use of the fabric and held at that value for 2min. The load is thenreduced to 2.5 N and held at that value for 2min. The width of the seam opening at its widest placeis then measured to the nearest 0.5 mm. The mean value for the war-wise and for weft-wisespecimens is reported.With this method it is not always obvious where the opening starts and finishes. It also producesthe problem of tests with no numerical results due to the seam or fabric failing or the test beingstopped before reaching the required seam opening.
2.3.3- Upholstery seam slippage: (BS 2543)
Five samples each for warp and weft of 200mm x 100mm are used.Each sample is folded in a half and a seam is machined 20mm from thefold, using the special sewing thread and a stitch rate of 5 stitches per cm.The folded edge is then cut off 12mm from the fold line. 25mm wide jawswith a gauge length of 75mm and at a speed of 50mm/min are used. Loadthe specimen in the jaws so that only the centre of the specimen isclamped as shown. Increase the load to 175N and hold at that for 2 min.reduce the load to 2.5N and hold for a further 2 min. measure the width of the seam opening at its widest place to the nearest 0.5 mm. give the meanvalue for warp and weft wise specimens.
3- Fabric Tear strength:
3.1- Introduction:
A fabric tears when it is snagged by a sharp object and the immediate small puncture isconverted into a long rip. It is probably the most common type of strength failure of fabrics in use. Itis particularly important in industrial fabrics that are exposed to rough handling in use such as tents,sacks and parachutes. Out door clothing, overalls and uniforms are types of clothing where tearingstrength is of importance.
3.2- Measuring tearing strength:
This property requires to measures the force to propagate an existing tear and not the forcerequired to initiate a tear. A cut is made in the specimen and then the force required to extend the cutis measured. This is conventionally carried out by gripping the two halves of the cut in a standardtensile tester.
3.2.1- Single rip tear test: (ASTM D2261)
The test is sometimes referred to as the single rip test, the trousertear or in the US as the tongue tear test. 10 specimens are tested fromboth fabric directions each measuring 75mm x 200mm (3x8in.) with an80mm (3.5in.) slit part way down the centre of each strip as shown inFig.
. one of the ‘tails’ is clamped in the lower jaw of a tensile testerand the other side is clamped in the upper jaw. The separation of the jaws causes the tear to proceed through the uncut part of the fabric. Theextension speed is set to 50mm/min (2in./min) or an optional speed of 300mm/min can be used.There are three ways of expressing the result:1.
The average of the five highest peaks2.
The median peak height3.
The average force by use of an integratorIf the direction to be torn is much stronger than the other direction,failure will occur by tearing across the tail so that it is not alwayspossible to obtain both warp and weft results.

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