Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05)
Physical Measurements on Fabrics
2.1- Seam slippage:
Seam slippage is the condition where a seam sewn in the fabric opens under load. Some of thisgap may close on removal of the load but some of it may be a permanent deformation.
2.2- Causes of seam slippage:
Fabric made from slippery yarns (filament yarns-round cross section & smooth surface)
Low density- warp & weft interlacing is low
Seam details: (
seam allowance, seam type, stitch type, stitch rate & stitch length
allowanceis more-more seam slippage, seam slippage is more in case of chin stitch than in lock stitch,normal stitch length-5 stitches per cm)
Type of sewing machine
Sewing needle number & sewing needle adjustment/height
Sewing thread used-thread having smooth surface cause seam slippage
High tension of sewing thread causes
2.3- Seam slippage tests:
2.3.1- Seam strength test-BS 3320
Five warp and five weft specimens each 100mm x350mm are used. Each sample is folded 100mm fromone end and a seam is sewed 20 mm from the foldline (using a special sewing thread and sewingmachine settings), the folded part is then cut away12mm from the folded edge and leaving the seam8mm from the cut edge. From this sample 150mmlength without seam is cut (having same warp or weftthreads) and is stretched in tensile tester up to a loadof 200N and a force elongation curve is drawn.The remaining sample with seam is then tested inthe same way making sure that the force elongationcurve starts from the same zero position. Horizontalseparation between the curves as shown in Fig. is then due toopening of the seam. A standard strength tester with 25mm grabtest jaws and 75mm gauge length is used.In order to find the force required to open the seam,separation (A) of the curves at 5 N is measured and this distance(A) is added to the “seam opening” (6mm usually. Next a pointis found where separation between the curves is “A+6mm”. Thevalue of load at this point is the seam strength. If the curves donot reach the specified separation (A+6mm) below 200 N thenthe result is recorded as “more than 200 N”.The US Standards ASTM D 434 and ASTM D 4034 arevery similar to the above method except that a load of 1 lbf (4.4N) is used for correcting for slack in the system instead of 5N. The required result is the load to produce a seam opening of 6mm (0.25in.).
2.3.2- Fix load method (seam slippage-grab test):Principle:
A strip of fabric is folded and stitched across its width. A force is then applied to the strip atright angles to the seam using grab-test jaws and the extent to which the seam opens for a givenforce is measured.The force applied depends upon the end use of the fabric under test. Test force for ladiesdresses, cushions and tickings-80N; for greater stresses such as in overcoats, suits and overalls-120Nand for considerable seam strength as in upholstery-175N is used.
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