Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05)
The thickness or diameter of a yarn is one of its most fundamental properties.However, it is not possible to measure the diameter of a yarn in any meaningful way.This is because the diameter of a yarn changes quite markedly as it is compressed.
Yarn is a soft assembly of fibres
There are voids spaces between the fibres within yarn
(Most methods of measuring the diameter of yarn involve compressing the yarn andhence the measured diameter changes with the pressure used. So mechanical means, devicescan’t be used for measuring the diameter of the yarn.)
yarn is thinner at twisted places and thicker where twist is less
Yarn appears vivid because of the hairiness; it has protruding fibres upon itssurface and also sometimes loops of fibers (kinks).
(Due to undefined boundaries, optical methods e.g. microscope can’t be used to measureyarn diameter)
Also there are lots of differences in the structure and cross section of differentfibres
Wool has nearly round cross-section
Silk has a triangular cross-section
Cotton is like flattened tube
Man-made fibres are often made with trilobal (nylon), star or hollowcross-section for particular purposes.Due to these problems, there are no such devices to measure the diameter of ayarn. Instead,
of denoting the fineness of a yarn by weighing a known lengthhave evolved. This is known as the
. Simply it the yarn thickness orcoarseness. There are two systems:
Direct system 2)
1: Direct System: w/l
In this system of counting, length unit is fixed and weight unit is variable. It isdefined as
weight per unit length
. When count increases, fineness decreases (count
). It is further classified as:a)
a) Tex System (Tt):
It is defined as no of grams per 1000 meters length.Multiples are based on weight unit and are as under
no of mg per 1000 meters length. It is used for yarn and roving.
no of decigrams per 1000 meters length. It is used for sliver.
no of kilograms per 1000 meters length. It is used for laps.
Tex is universal system either for spun or filament yarn.
b) Denier System (Td):
It is defined as no of grams per 9000 meters length.