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Linear Density_Textile Testing_By_AbuBakkar Marwat

Linear Density_Textile Testing_By_AbuBakkar Marwat

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Published by Abu Bakkar
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Published by: Abu Bakkar on Aug 14, 2009
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Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05)
The thickness or diameter of a yarn is one of its most fundamental properties.However, it is not possible to measure the diameter of a yarn in any meaningful way.This is because the diameter of a yarn changes quite markedly as it is compressed.
Yarn is a soft assembly of fibres
There are voids spaces between the fibres within yarn
(Most methods of measuring the diameter of yarn involve compressing the yarn andhence the measured diameter changes with the pressure used. So mechanical means, devicescan’t be used for measuring the diameter of the yarn.)
yarn is thinner at twisted places and thicker where twist is less
Yarn appears vivid because of the hairiness; it has protruding fibres upon itssurface and also sometimes loops of fibers (kinks).
(Due to undefined boundaries, optical methods e.g. microscope can’t be used to measureyarn diameter)
Also there are lots of differences in the structure and cross section of differentfibres
Wool has nearly round cross-section
Silk has a triangular cross-section
Cotton is like flattened tube
Man-made fibres are often made with trilobal (nylon), star or hollowcross-section for particular purposes.Due to these problems, there are no such devices to measure the diameter of ayarn. Instead,
of denoting the fineness of a yarn by weighing a known lengthhave evolved. This is known as the
linear density
. Simply it the yarn thickness orcoarseness. There are two systems:
 Direct system 2)
 Indirect system
1: Direct System: w/l
In this system of counting, length unit is fixed and weight unit is variable. It isdefined as
weight per unit length
. When count increases, fineness decreases (count
). It is further classified as:a)
Tex systemb)
Denier systemc)
Grex system
a) Tex System (Tt):
It is defined as no of grams per 1000 meters length.Multiples are based on weight unit and are as under
 Milli-tex (mTex):
no of mg per 1000 meters length. It is used for yarn and roving.
Deci-tex (dTex):
no of decigrams per 1000 meters length. It is used for sliver.
Kilo-tex (KTex):
no of kilograms per 1000 meters length. It is used for laps.
Tex is universal system either for spun or filament yarn.
b) Denier System (Td):
 It is defined as no of grams per 9000 meters length.
Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05)
c) Grex System (Tg):
No of grams per 10000 meters length
2: Indirect System: l/w
In indirect count system
weight unit is fixed
and length is variable on which basismeasurement is done. When count increases, fineness increases. (count
This includes:
a) English Count (Ne):
 In this system, the weight unit is in lbs and length unit is hanks;
No of hanks per  pound.
Hank length varies for different fibers or yarns.
Cotton = 840yards
Wool = 256yards
Spun Silk = 840yards
Bast fibers (linen) = 300yards
Worsted = 560yards
b) Metric Count (Nm):
 It is defined as
no of 1000 meters length/Kg
. It is commonly used for heavy yarns.
Count Conversion Table:
Ne Nm Tex Grex DenierNe=
1 xNe 0.5905 xNm 590.5 /Tex 5905 /Grex 5315 /Den
Nm= 1.693xNe
1 xNm 1000 /Tex 10,000/Grex 9000 /Den
Tex= 590.5 /Ne
1000 /Nm 1 xTex 0.1 xGrex 0.111 xDen
5905 /Ne 10,000 /Nm 10 xTex 1 xGrex 1.111 xDen
5315 /Ne 9000 /Nm
9 xTex
0.9 xGrex 1 xDen
Simplified calculations:
Calculations for Tex:
1000 m
1 g (1 Tex)1 m
1 mg (1 Tex)100 cm
1 mg (1 Tex)50 cm
0.5 mg (1 Tex)
Calculations for Denier:
9000 m
1g (1 denier)9 m
1 mg (1 denier)900 cm
1 mg (1 denier)9 cm
0.01 mg (1 denier)
Calculations for Grex:
10,000 m
1g (1 Grex)10 m
1mg (1 Grex)1 m
0.1mg (1 Grex)50 cm
0.05mg (1 Grex)
Calculations for Ne:
840 yd
1lb (1 Ne)840 yd
453.6g (1 Ne)1.85 yd
1g (1 Ne)66.67in
1g (1 Ne)33.33in
0.5g (1 Ne)
Calculations for Nm:
1000 m * X(count)
1kg (X Nm)1000 m * 1
1000g (1 Nm)1 m
1g (1 Nm)50 cm
0.5g (1 Nm)
Abu Bakkar Marwat (05-NTU-05)
Effect of linear density on Hairiness:
Yarn linear density is statistically significant when evaluating both yarn countstogether with SPSS. We found a direct relationship between yarn linear density andhairiness; the hairiness increases when the yarn linear density increases. In otherwords, coarse yarns have more hairs than fine yarns for all the observed hair lengths.This can be explained by the increase of fibres in the cross-section of yarn.
Designation/Nomenclature of Yarn:
Single Yarn:
(spun or cotton)
It is identified through one group of three symbols:
-direction of twist,
-twist level or TPI 
Single Yarn: (filament yarn):100(15)/S/80
-denier count,
 )-no of monofilaments in filament yarn,
-direction of twist,
-level of twist i.e TPM 
Plied Yarn:
It is identified through two groups of three symbols:
24/S/15, 2/Z/12
-Ne (cotton count),
-direction of twist,
-no of plies,
-direction of twist of "yarns",
Cabled yarn:
It is identified by three groups of three symbols:
20/Z/10, 2/S/8, 2/Z/6
-direction of twist in individual yarn,
-no of plies of single yarn,
-direction of twist,
-no of plies of plied yarns,
-direction of twist,
Measuring Linear Density:
For lots that contain five cases or less, the sample should consist of all the cases.Ten packages are selected at random but in approximately equal number from eachcase. For lots that consist of more than five cases, five cases should be selected atrandom from each of these cases. In all cases, sampling ends up with ten cases.
Effect of Moisture Content:
Yarns contain a varying amount of moisture depending on the constituentfibres and the moisture content of the atmosphere where they have been stored. Theadditional moisture can make an appreciable difference to weight and hence the lineardensity of yarn. So there are three conventional methods of expressing linear density.Each of which has a different way of dealing with moisture content.

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